Subfamily Hesperiinae - Grass Skippers
Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea).By Warren, A.D., J.R. Ogawa and A.V.Z. Brower.
Cladistics 24, 1–35., 2008
Warren, A.D., J.R. Ogawa and A.V.Z. Brower. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea). Cladistics 24, 1–35.
A comprehensive tribal-level classification for the worlds subfamilies of Hesperiidae, the skipper butterflies, is proposed for the first time. Phylogenetic relationships between tribes and subfamilies are inferred using DNA sequence data from three gene regions (cytochrome oxidase subunit I-subunit II, elongation factor-1a and wingless). Monophyly of the family is strongly supported, as are some of the traditionally recognized subfamilies, with the following relationships: (Coeliadinae + ("Pyrginae" + (Heteropterinae + (Trapezitinae + Hesperiinae)))). The subfamily Pyrginae of contemporary authors was recovered as a paraphyletic grade of taxa. The formerly recognized subfamily Pyrrhopyginae, although monophyletic, is downgraded to a tribe of the "Pyrginae". The former subfamily Megathyminae is an infra-tribal group of the Hesperiinae. The Australian endemic Euschemon rafflesia
is a hesperiid, possibly related to "Pyrginae" (Eudamini). Most of the traditionally recognized groups and subgroups of genera currently employed to partition the subfamilies of the Hesperiidae are not monophyletic. We recognize eight pyrgine and six hesperiine tribes, including the new tribe Moncini.
Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data.By Warren, A.D., J.R. Ogawa & A.V.Z. Brower.
Systematic Entomology 34(3): 467-523., 2009
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Warren, A.D., J.R. Ogawa & A.V.Z. Brower. 2009. Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data. Systematic Entomology 34(3): 467-523.
We propose a revised higher classification for the genera of Hesperiidae (skipper butterflies) of the world. We have augmented our published DNA data matrix with 49 morphological characters in order to infer relationships for taxa not sampled in the molecular study. We use the results of a combined analysis to identify morphological synapomorphies of the suprageneric clades of Hesperiidae, and to hypothesize a phylogenetic classification of the world’s genera of Hesperiidae, the first of its kind for this diverse group.
Butterflies of Louisiana: A guide to identification and locationBy Marks, C.
LSU Press, Baton Rouge, LA, 2018
Craig Marks. 2018. Butterflies of Louisiana: A Guide to Identification and Location. LSU Press, Baton Rouge, LA. 472 pgs.
Butterflies abound in every region of the Bayou State, and with this authoritative resource in hand, both the experienced and novice butterfly watcher can identify a frequent backyard visitor or pinpoint the haunts of a particular species. With a long flight season stretching from late February to early November, Louisiana offers an abundance of opportunities to observe the 154 native species of butterflies, whose habitats range from coastal prairies to swampland to northern piney woods.
A Swift Guide to Butterflies of Mexico and Central America, Second Edition.By Glassberg, J.
Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 304 pp., 2018
Glassberg, J. 2018. A Swift Guide to Butterflies of Mexico and Central America, Second Edition. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 304 pp.
3,250 color photos and maps
A groundbreaking photographic field guide to almost all of Mexico's butterfly species and many of Central America's
This is a revised second edition of a groundbreaking photographic field guide to the butterflies of Mexico and Central America. Written by Jeffrey Glassberg, the pioneering authority on the field identification of butterflies, the guide covers more than 2,000 species and features over 3,700 large, gorgeous color photographs, the very best images available, accompanied by authoritative facing-page text. This second edition includes more species, more than 1,500 new photos, and updated text, maps, and species names. And range maps, field marks, and host plants are included for all Mexican butterflies. The result is an ideal field guide that will enable you to identify almost every butterfly you see.