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Species Pieris marginalis - Margined White - Hodges#4195

Margined White - Pieris marginalis Margined White - Pieris marginalis Margined White - Pieris marginalis Moths - Pieris marginalis Type of white butterfly - Pieris marginalis - female Pieris marginalis - male - Pieris marginalis - male Pieris marginalis venosa - Pieris marginalis - female Margined White - Pieris marginalis - male
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Papilionoidea (Butterflies and Skippers)
Family Pieridae (Whites, Sulphurs, Yellows)
Subfamily Pierinae (Whites)
Tribe Pierini (Cabbage Whites, Checkered Whites, Albatrosses)
Genus Pieris
Species marginalis (Margined White - Hodges#4195)
Hodges Number
4195
Other Common Names
Veined White
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Pieris marginalis Scudder, 1861. Type locality: Washington Territory [Original description lists Crescent City, California; Gulf of Georgia; and Washington Territory. Gulf of Georgia (Georgia Straight) is in British Columbia, but has been interpretted to mean near Port Townsend, Washington.]
Pieris pallida Scudder, 1861. Type locality: Gulf of Georgia [interpretted as near Port Townsend, Jefferson County, Washington by H. Hagen (1883), Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 22: 164]
Pieris venosa Scudder, 1861. Type locality: San Mateo, California
Pieris castoria Reakirt, 1866. Type locality: Castoria [= French Camp], San Joaquin County, California
Pieris iberidis Boisduval, 1869. Type locality: “dans les champs” [defined as “Hwy. 70 at Soda Creek, E. Branch N. Fork Feather River Canyon, 2500' elev., Plumas County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 25]
Pieris resedae Boisduval, 1869. Type locality: “sur les bords du Sacramento”, California [perhaps mistaken location?]
Pieris napi pallidissima W. Barnes & McDunnough, 1916. Type locality: Provo, Utah
Pieris napi microstriata J. A. Comstock, 1924. Type locality: Eldredge, Sonoma County, California
Pieris napi mogollon Burdick, 1942. Type locality: Mogollon Range, Catron County, New Mexico
Pieris napi macdunnoughii C. Remington, 1954. Type locality: Silverton, Colorado [replacement name for invalid (preoccupied) Pieris napi pseudonapi W. Barnes & McDunnough, 1916]
Pieris marginalis reicheli Eitschberger 1983. Type locality: Revelstoke, British Columbia
Pieris marginalis shapiroi Eitschberger, 1983. Type locality: Kikuktok Mt., Hooper Bay, Yukon Delta, Alaska 3 meters elevation
Pieris marginalis ziegleri Eitschberger, 1991. Type locality: Hwy 191 betw. West Yellowstone and Big Sky, Gallatin Co., Montana 1800-2100 meters elevation
Pieris napi sequoia J. Emmel, T. Emmel & Mattoon, 1998. Type locality: Prairie Creek, Redwood State Park, Humboldt County, California 50 meters elevation

?Pieris hulda W. H. Edwards, 1869. Type locality: Kodiak, Alaska [note: perhaps belongs with Pieris angelika instead]
?Pieris napi pseudobryoniae W. Barnes & McDunnough, 1916. Type locality: Nulato, Alaska [note: perhaps belongs with Pieris angelika instead]
?Pieris marginalis browni Eitschberger 1983. Type locality: Mile 48, Kongarok Rd., Big Creek, Seward Peninsula, Alaska 750ft. elevation [note: perhaps belongs with Pieris angelika instead]
?Pieris marginalis guppyi Eitschberger, 1983. Type locality: Skagway, Alaska [note: perhaps belongs with Pieris angelika instead]
?Pieris marginalis tremblayi Eitschberger, 1983. Type locality: mile 147, Alaska Highway, Pink Mountain, British Columbia 5000ft elevation [note: perhaps belongs with Pieris angelika instead]

Names above may be variously treated as synonyms of Pieris marginalis or Pieris napi, as subspecies, or as distinct species, depending upon the opinions of different authors.

P. angelika, P. marginalis, & P. oleracea are closely related to Eurasian P. napi (Green-veined White), and are often treated as subspecies of it. Just where P. marginalis, oleracea, and angelika displace one another is still unresolved, with different studies giving somewhat contradictory results. Some evidence strongly suggests that P. angelika should perhaps be treated as part of P. oleracea, and that northern populations currently placed by some authors within P. marginalis should really belong under P. angelika or P. oleracea.
Size
Wing span: 1 1/2 - 2 1/4 inches (3.8 - 5.7 cm).(1)
Identification
White above, usually with ventral hind wing and part of ventral front wing yellowish to yellow. Base of wings are blackish above. Forewing is dark-tipped and sometimes has one (male) or two (female) dark spots (spots may be lacking entirely). Below (and sometimes above) veins are edged with yellow-green, green-gray, or nearly black. Where multiple-brooded, summer broods may have dark markings reduced to missing (extreme base of upper wings is always nearly black). (1)
Distinction from P. angelica & P. oleracea is based primarily on geography. P. angelica is a more northwestern species, P. oleracea eastern. See further notes under P. oleracea.
Similar Pieris rapae always has dark spots on upper front wings and has more dark coloring at apex of front wing both above and below. Hind wing is unmarked by dark pattern below. It is the more likely species to be seen away from cool wooded areas.
Range
West of the Great Plains from British Columbia and Alberta south to central California, southern Arizona, and southern New Mexico. Also, in the Black Hills, Cypress Hills, and other wooded outliers on the northern Great Plains.(1)
Habitat
Forests, meadows, deciduous woods, streamsides.(1)
Season
Two or more flights from February-September in the West.(1)
{observed April thru November in central New Mexico - Dave Ferguson - 7-20-09}
Food
Caterpillar hosts: Various native plants in the mustard (Brassicaceae) family.
Adult food: Nectar from flowers of the mustard family and other plants.(1)
Life Cycle
Males patrol for receptive females. Eggs are laid singly on underside of host plant leaves on which the caterpillars feed. Chrysalis hibernates.(1)