Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Cynthia annabella W.D. Field 1971. Type locality: First valley W of Arroyo Verde Park, Ventura, Ventura Co., California
Vanessa annabella (W.D. Field)
Explanation of Names
Was known until 1971 as Vanessa carye. Typical V. carye is presumed to be South American. The two are virtually identical; both molecular and morphological differences are minimal (and possibly inconsistent?). Opinions vary, and distinction as separate species or not is debated. It seems possible that V. annabella could eventually be placed back into V. carye as a synonym, or considered as a subspecies. Our butterfly can sometimes be found listed under either name.
Hamadryas carye Hübner 1812. Type locality: not given [Type specimen(s) presumed destroyed; name is tied to original illustrations by Hübner, which Field interpreted as being drawn from South American material; he gave North American material the new name - V. annabella.]
Vanessa carye (Hübner) Hübner 1819
Pyrameis carye (Hübner) Doubleday 1849
Pyrameis caryoides Giacomelli 1922. Type locality: La Rioja, La Rioja, Argentina [described as new species; based on aberrant specimen with unusual color pattern]
The Painted Lady averages somewhat larger. The forewings are more angular in appearance as compared to the other two "Lady" species, because of the squared wing tip. Marking-wise, the dark stripes on the upper surface are narrow, like American Lady. The second (subapical) bar on both surfaces of the forewing is orange in West Coast Lady, white on Painted Lady, and either color on American Lady. On the hindwings, there is more orange than Painted Lady and all four eyespots are equal in size and clearly filled in with blue. The American Lady only has two much larger eye spots on the hind wings.
Caterpillars are very similar to those of V. cardui, V. atalanta, and Nymphalis (Aglais) milbertii. They vary greatly in coloring from almost solid black through mottled grays and browns, to green, and may have prominent stripes within the pattern, or not. Pupae are varied in coloring as well, but are usually light brownish with a slight metallic sheen. They are very similar to those of other Vanessa species, but a bit more angular in shape than those of V. cardui and V. virginiensis.
Comparison of the three "Lady" species in America:
Left: Painted Lady, Vanessa cardui.
Center: West Coast Lady, Vanessa annabella.
Right: American Lady, Vanessa virginensis.
West coast from British Columbia to Guatemala and east to Alberta, Dakotas, w. Nebraska, w. Kansas, w. Oklahoma, and w. Texas; through most of Mexico. Becoming rare at it's eastern limits, where it may not be a permanent resident. Some seasons it strays further east than others, and it may appear far east of its usual distribution.
In South America V. carye continues the distribution from Colombia and Venezuela southward west of the tropical lowlands, and is common through much of Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.
Not picky, but usually in open sunny areas and an avid visitor of many flowers.
Mostly Urtica (Nettles) and many different Mallows (Malvaceae), but apparently also sometimes on certain Legumes (Alfalfa, Lupine). Caterpillars are often noticed on Garden Hollyhocks Alcea rosea.
Seems to overwinter in various stages (larvae, pupae, adults), and has multiple generations per year in most areas. Probably not often overwintering north of about southern Utah and Colorado, but adults often appear as early as April even in the north. Additional information from Dimock, 1978 available online (1)
Often, in fact usually, found flying alongside V. cardui, and similar in appearance and behavior to that species.
This species is closely related to, and sometimes hybridizes with the Red Admiral - V. atalanta, and the offspring look intermediate, resembling somewhat the Indian Red Admiral - Vanessa indica (an Asian species). This hybrid was named Vanessa atalanta variety edwardsi by F. Grinnell in 1918.
The Vanessa Migration Project
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