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Family Aphelinidae

spent Scale, Aphelinidae emerged Parasitoid, lateral, from Whitefly on Jewel weed 'Parasitica' Wasp in La Habra CA5 Parasitoid of gracillariid on Sideroxylon lanuginosum Female, Marietta mexicana? - Marietta - female lateral SBBG-SCL-TIC_001136
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" - Parasitoid Wasps)
Superfamily Chalcidoidea (Chalcidoid Wasps)
Family Aphelinidae
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
now treated to include Aphelininae, Calesinae, Coccophaginae, Eretmocerinae and Eriaphytinae; Azotidae & Eriaporidae are now recognized as families(1)
Numbers
~210 spp. in 14 genera of 5 subfamilies in our area, ~1200 spp. in 36 genera worldwide, arranged into 7 subfamilies(2) (two of which, Azotinae & Eriaporinae, are now separate families)(1)
Size
0.6-1.4 mm(2)
Identification
Generally 5 segmented tarsi (thus different from the 4 segmented tarsi of Eulophidae except that some aphelinids have 4 segmented tarsi), and antennae with eight or less segments (usually 11-segmented in Encyrtidae)(3); forewing venation distinctive.
Other features include: large eyes, wings with setal tracts, long marginal vein, yellowish-brown coloration, and thorax and abdomen broadly joined.
Key to world genera by Hayat (1983), which includes additional references for some species-level identifications.
Range
Throughout the world
Life Cycle
the males and females may have different ontogenies: females of such species always develop as primary endoparasitoids of homopterous hosts (usually coccoids), whilst the males may be primary ectoparasitoids of Homoptera, hyperparasitoids of other chalcidoid larvae or pupae within their homopterous hosts, or primary endoparasitoids of lepidopteran eggs(2)
Remarks
Related to Encyrtidae, sharing their stout outline and the big apical spur on tibia II (a jumping device)
Print References
Hayat, M. 1983. The genera of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera) of the world. Systematic Entomology 8(1):63-102. (Wiley Online Library)
Works Cited
1.A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)
Heraty J.M., Burks R.A., Cruaud A., Gibson G.A.P., Liljeblad J., Munro J., Rasplus J.-Y., Delvare G., Janšta P., Gumovsky A.... 2013. Cladistics 29: 466–542.
2.Universal Chalcidoidea Database
3.A handbook of the families of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). 2nd Edition
Grissell E.E., Schauff M. E. 1997. Ent. Soc. Wash. 87pp.