Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
now treated to include Aphelininae, Calesinae, Coccophaginae, Eretmocerinae and Eriaphytinae; Azotidae & Eriaporidae are now recognized as families(1)
~210 spp. in 14 genera of 5 subfamilies in our area, ~1200 spp. in 36 genera worldwide, arranged into 7 subfamilies(2)
(two of which, Azotinae & Eriaporinae, are now separate families)(1)
Generally 5 segmented tarsi (thus different from the 4 segmented tarsi of Eulophidae except that some aphelinids have 4 segmented tarsi), and antennae with eight or less segments (usually 11-segmented in Encyrtidae)(3)
; forewing venation distinctive.
Other features include: large eyes, wings with setal tracts, long marginal vein, yellowish-brown coloration, and thorax and abdomen broadly joined.
the males and females may have different ontogenies: females of such species always develop as primary endoparasitoids of homopterous hosts (usually coccoids), whilst the males may be primary ectoparasitoids of Homoptera, hyperparasitoids of other chalcidoid larvae or pupae within their homopterous hosts, or primary endoparasitoids of lepidopteran eggs(2)
Related to Encyrtidae, sharing their stout outline and the big apical spur on tibia II (a jumping device)