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For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada

Species Gratiana boliviana

Gratiana boliviana Gratiana boliviana - male Gratiana boliviana - female Gratiana boliviana Gratiana boliviana Gratiana boliviana Gratiana boliviana Genus Gratiana? - Gratiana boliviana
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga (Water, Rove, Scarab, Long-horned, Leaf and Snout Beetles)
No Taxon (Series Cucujiformia)
Superfamily Chrysomeloidea (Long-horned and Leaf Beetles)
Family Chrysomelidae (Leaf Beetles)
Subfamily Cassidinae (Tortoise Beetles and the Hispines)
Tribe Cassidini (Tortoise Beetles)
Genus Gratiana
Species boliviana (Gratiana boliviana)
Explanation of Names
Gratiana boliviana Spaeth 1926
Larva cream with small green spot. Carries fecal shield.
Young adults light green with a continuous yellow mark along the rim. Adults turn yellow.
released in FL, GA, AL, TX, established in FL; native to southern Brazil, northern Argentina, and Paraguay (Diaz et al. 2012)
The only host of Gratiana boliviana in Florida is tropical soda apple, (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae) (Diaz et al. 2012)
Used as weed biocontrol agent against Solanum viarum (soda apple), an invasive plant from South America; first released in May 2003 (Diaz et al. 2012)
Print References
Diaz R, Overholt WA, Samayoa A, Sosa F, Cordeau D, Medal J. 2008. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and potential distribution of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum (Solanaceae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 18: 193-207.
Diaz R, Overholt WA, Hahn D, Samayoa A. 2011. Diapause induction in Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple in Florida. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 103: 1319-1326.
Diaz R, Aguirre C, Wheeler GS, Lapointe SL, Rosskopf E, Overholt WA. 2011. Differential performance of tropical soda apple and its biological control agent Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in open and shaded habitats. Environmental Entomology 40:1437-1447.
Diaz R, Hibbard K, Samayoa A, Overholt WA. 2012. Arthropod community associated with tropical soda apple and natural enemies of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida. Florida Entomologist 95: 228-232.
Medal J, Overholt W, Charudattan R, Mullahey J, Gaskala R, Diaz R, Cuda J. 2012. Tropical soda apple management plan. UF/IFAS and FDACS/DPI, Gainesville FL.
Overholt WA, Diaz R, Hibbard K, Roda AL, Amalin D, Fox AJ, Hight SD, Medal JC, Stansly PA, Carlisle B, Walter JH, Hogue PJ, Gary LA, Wiggins, LF, Kirby CL, Crawford SC. 2009. Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae) in Florida. Florida Entomologis 92: 450-457.
Overholt WA, Diaz R, Markle L, Medal JC. 2010. The effect of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) herbivory on growth and population density of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) in Florida. Biocontrol Science and Technology 20: 791-807.
Internet References
Featured Creatures - Diaz et al. 2012