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Family Curculionidae - Snout and Bark Beetles

Weevil - Nemocestes horni Cnesinus strigicollis LeConte - Cnesinus strigicollis Strong arm beetle/weevil ID - Pandeleteius Black Vine Weevil - Otiorhynchus sulcatus Weevil 2 - Homorosoma sulcipenne 825W02 - Smicronyx Communal mine, wild plum - Orchestes pallicornis Cranberry Weevil - Lateral  - Anthonomus musculus
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga
No Taxon (Series Cucujiformia)
Superfamily Curculionoidea
Family Curculionidae (Snout and Bark Beetles)
Other Common Names
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Four major groups: The oldest lineages (the paraphyletic "Brachycerinae", treated here as a family) are monocot specialists and have a primitive aedeagus. Dryophthorinae and Platypodinae are closely related and share some larval similarities. Bagoinae form a small lineage sister to the remaining subfamilies, which feed mostly on dicots and have more advanced aedeagal morphology. Two major clades recognized, which correspond to endophytic vs ectophytic larval ecology. The latter includes Entiminae, Hyperinae, Gonipterinae, and Cyclominae. The rest form the endophytic clade, where many currently recognized subfamilies appear to be para- or polyphyletic.(1)
Explanation of Names
Curculionidae Latreille 1802
weevil: from Old English wifel, akin to German Wiebel and Lithuanian vabalas 'beetle' (Online Etymology Dictionary)
Arguably, the largest animal family with >50,000 spp. in ~4600 genera worldwide(2) and 2,500 spp. in ~480 genera of 19 subfamilies in our area (Staphylinidae and/or Ichneumonidae may turn out more speciose.)
Overview of our fauna (DRAFT)Taxa not yet in the guide: (*) native, (٭‎) non-native
Subfamily Dryophthorinae
   Subtribe Orthognathina Orthognathus
   Subtribe Rhinostomina Rhinostomus
   Subtribe Litosomina Sitophilus
[Subfamily Erirhininae] (moved to Brachyceridae)
Tribe Erirhinini
   Subtribe Erirhinina Grypus · Notaris · Procas · Tournotaris
   Subtribe Tanysphyrina Tanysphyrus
[Subfamily Raymondionyminae] (moved to Brachyceridae)
Subfamily Curculioninae
Tribe Ellescini
   Subtribe Ellescina Ellescus · Proctorus
   Subtribe Dorytomina Dorytomus
Tribe Rhamphini
   Subtribe Rhamphina Isochnus · Orchestes · Tachyerges
   Subtribe Tachygonina Tachygonus
Tribe Tychiini
   Subtribe Tychiina Sibinia · Tychius
   Subtribe Lignyodina Lignyodes · Plocetes
   Subtribe Ochyromerina Ochyromera
   Unassigned: Macrorhoptus
Subfamily Bagoinae Pnigodes · Bagous
Subfamily Baridinae
Tribe Madarini
   Subtribe Tonesiina Myctides
   Subtribe Torcina Sibariops
Subfamily Ceutorhynchinae
Subfamily Conoderinae
Subfamily Cossoninae
Tribe Rhyncolini
   Subtribe Phloeophagina Phloeophagus
Subfamily Cryptorhynchinae
Subfamily Cyclominae
Subfamily Entiminae
   Subtribe Myllocerina Myllocerus · Neoptochus
Tribe Omiini Omias
Tribe Tanymecini
Subfamily Hyperinae Coniatus · Donus · Hypera
Subfamily Lixinae
Subfamily Mesoptiliinae
Subfamily Molytinae
Tribe Molytini
Tribe Cholini
   Subtribe ٭‎Cholina ٭‎Cholus[img]
   Subtribe Rhinastina Neoerethistes
Unassigned: ٭‎Tranes [img]
Subfamily Scolytinae
Tribe Hylesinini
   Subtribe Hylastina Hylastes · Hylurgops · Scierus
   Subtribe Phloeotribina Phloeotribus
Tribe Scolytini
   Subtribe Scolytina Cnemonyx · Scolytus
   Subtribe Cactopinina Cactopinus
   Subtribe Crypturgina Crypturgus · Dolurgus
Subfamily Platypodinae
1‒35 mm
most have a downward-curved snout (rostrum); antennae elbowed, clubbed, with scape often fitting into a groove in the side of snout
Females tend to have rostrum longer and antennal insertion more basal
Good old keys, still useful mutatis mutandis, in (3)
throughout the world
Most larvae and adults occur and feed on all parts of plants, and many species are important pests because they chew holes in fruits, nuts, and other parts of cultivated plants (see, e.g.,(4))
Has a symbiotic relationship with various proteobacteria including Nardonella and a yeast, Symbiotaphrina, that assist in providing the insect with sufficient amino acids.(5)
See Also
Members of many non-weevil families also have rostrate heads, e.g.:
―there must be others as well...
Print References
Internet References
Weevils of Texas (Quinn 2017)
Works Cited
1.Phylogenomic data yield new and robust insights into the phylogeny and evolution of weevils
Shin S, Clarke DJ, Lemmon AR, Moriarty Lemmon E, Aitken AL, Haddad S, Farrell BD, Marvaldi AE, Oberprieler RG, McKenna DD. 2017. Mol. biol. evol. 35: 823-836.
2.Order Coleoptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification...
Ślipiński S.A., Leschen R.A.B., Lawrence J.F. 2011. Zootaxa 3148: 203–208.
3.Rhynchophora or weevils of North Eastern America
Blatchley and Leng. 1916. Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis, Indiana. 682 pp.
4.Weevils attacking fruit trees in Washington
E.H. Beers et al. 2003. Proceedings of the 77th Annual Western Orchard Pest & Disease Management Conference, Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA.
5.The Insects : Structure and Function
R. F. Chapman. 1998. Cambridge University Press.
6.A catalog of Coleoptera of America North of Mexico. Curculionidae: Acicnemidinae, Cossoninae, Rhytirrhininae, Molytinae...
O'Brien C.W. 1997. USDA Agric. handbook 529-143g. 49 pp.
7.A catalog of Coleoptera of America north of Mexico. Curculionidae: Erirhininae
O'Brien C.W., Anderson D.M. 1996. USDA Agriculture handbook no. 529-143f. 40 pp.
8.Annotated checklist of the weevils (Curculionidae sensu lato) of North America, Central America, and the West Indies...
O'Brien C.W., Wibmer G.J. 1982. Mem. Am. Ent. Inst. 34: x+382 pp.