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Family Acanthosomatidae - Shield Bugs

Elasmostethus cruciatus? - Elasmostethus cruciatus Unknown Nymphs - Elasmucha lateralis Unknown Nymphs - Elasmucha lateralis Is this another P. serieventris? - Elasmostethus cruciatus Red-cross Shield Bug - Elasmostethus cruciatus Elasmostethus atricornis or cruciatus  - Elasmostethus atricornis Pentatomomorpha (nymph) - Elasmucha lateralis unidentified Stink Bug - Elasmucha lateralis
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hemiptera (True Bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Aphids and Allies)
Suborder Heteroptera (True Bugs)
Infraorder Pentatomomorpha
Superfamily Pentatomoidea
Family Acanthosomatidae (Shield Bugs)
Other Common Names
Parent Bugs (1)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
=Acanthosomidae
used to be treated as a subfamily of Pentatomidae(2)
Explanation of Names
Acanthosomatidae Signoret 1863
from Acanthosoma, Greek akanthos 'spine, thorn' + soma 'body' - a reference to the ventral spine at the base of the abdomen
Numbers
small family, with 5 spp. in 2 genera in our area(2) and >180 spp. in 46 genera of 3 subfamilies worldwide(3)
Size
5-35 mm
Identification
2-segmented tarsi distinguish this family from other pentatomoids (which have 3-segmented tarsi)
our fauna revised in(4)
Range
cosmopolitan; mostly in temperate regions or at higher elevations in the subtropics of the Old World(3); in our area, northern transcontinental (Canada & n. US), south to SC in the east at higher elevations + 1 sp. in NM(5)(6)
Food
hosts include mostly woody plants(7), unlike in other pentatomoids
Life Cycle
adults exhibit maternal care of eggs and early instars(7)
Remarks
only the nominate subfamily is represented in our area
Internet References
Works Cited
1.Stink bugs (Pentatomidae) and parent bugs (Acanthosomatidae) of Ontario and adjacent areas...
Paiero S.M., Marshall S.A., McPherson J.E., Ma M.-S. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 24: 1-183.
2.American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico
Ross H. Arnett. 2000. CRC Press.
3.Biodiversity of the Heteroptera
Henry T.J. 2009. In: Foottit R.G., Adler P.H., eds. Insect biodiversity: Science and society. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell: 223-263.
4.The Acanthosomatidae (Heteroptera) of North America
Thomas D.B., Jr. 1991. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 67(3): 159-170.
5.How to Know the True Bugs
Slater, James A., and Baranowski, Richard M. 1978. Wm. C. Brown Company.
6.The Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera) of Northeastern North America
J.E. McPherson. 1982. Southern Illinois University Press.
7.Australian Faunal Directory