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Species Calpodes ethlius - Brazilian Skipper - Hodges#4115

 
 
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Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea).
By Warren, A.D., J.R. Ogawa and A.V.Z. Brower.
Cladistics 24, 1–35., 2008
Full PDF

Warren, A.D., J.R. Ogawa and A.V.Z. Brower. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea). Cladistics 24, 1–35.

Abstract

A comprehensive tribal-level classification for the worlds subfamilies of Hesperiidae, the skipper butterflies, is proposed for the first time. Phylogenetic relationships between tribes and subfamilies are inferred using DNA sequence data from three gene regions (cytochrome oxidase subunit I-subunit II, elongation factor-1a and wingless). Monophyly of the family is strongly supported, as are some of the traditionally recognized subfamilies, with the following relationships: (Coeliadinae + ("Pyrginae" + (Heteropterinae + (Trapezitinae + Hesperiinae)))). The subfamily Pyrginae of contemporary authors was recovered as a paraphyletic grade of taxa. The formerly recognized subfamily Pyrrhopyginae, although monophyletic, is downgraded to a tribe of the "Pyrginae". The former subfamily Megathyminae is an infra-tribal group of the Hesperiinae. The Australian endemic Euschemon rafflesia is a hesperiid, possibly related to "Pyrginae" (Eudamini). Most of the traditionally recognized groups and subgroups of genera currently employed to partition the subfamilies of the Hesperiidae are not monophyletic. We recognize eight pyrgine and six hesperiine tribes, including the new tribe Moncini.

Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data.
By Warren, A.D., J.R. Ogawa & A.V.Z. Brower.
Systematic Entomology 34(3): 467-523., 2009
For a copy

Warren, A.D., J.R. Ogawa & A.V.Z. Brower. 2009. Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data. Systematic Entomology 34(3): 467-523.

Abstract

We propose a revised higher classification for the genera of Hesperiidae (skipper butterflies) of the world. We have augmented our published DNA data matrix with 49 morphological characters in order to infer relationships for taxa not sampled in the molecular study. We use the results of a combined analysis to identify morphological synapomorphies of the suprageneric clades of Hesperiidae, and to hypothesize a phylogenetic classification of the world’s genera of Hesperiidae, the first of its kind for this diverse group.

Expanded phenotypic diagnoses for 24 recently named new taxa of Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera).
By Grishin, N.V.
The International Lepidoptera Survey - The Taxonomic Report. 8(1): , 2019
Grishin, N.V. 2019. Expanded phenotypic diagnoses for 24 recently named new taxa of Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera). The International Lepidoptera Survey - The Taxonomic Report. 8(1):

Notes on some skippers, with new records for the United States (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).
By Freeman, H.A.
Canadian Entomologist 77(11): 201-203., 1945
Freeman, H.A. 1945. Notes on some skippers, with new records for the United States (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). Canadian Entomologist 77(11): 201-203.

New Hesperiidae records for Texas and the United States.
By McGuire, W.W. & M.A. Rickard.
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 30(1): 5-11., 1976
Full PDF

McGuire, W.W. & M.A. Rickard. 1976. New Hesperiidae records for Texas and the United States. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 30(1): 5-11.

The Rio Grande Valley of Texas, located in the extreme southern section of the state and encompassing areas of essentially neotropical habitat, offers a unique opportunity for the study of Lepidoptera in the U.S.A. The authors have had the good fortune to collect this area rather frequently during the past several years and during that time some interesting and important new records of Hesperiidae have been obtained.

Butterflies of Pennsylvania, a field guide
By James L. Monroe, David M. Wright
University of Pittsburgh Press
From the publishers page:
https://upittpress.org/books/9780822964551/

This work has all of the features that make field guides to a region's butterfly fauna useful to anyone with a serious interest in that fauna. . . . the book is a bargain and a must for anyone with an interest not just in Pennsylvania's fauna, but the northeast fauna as a whole.
News of the Lepidopterists' Society

Winner, 2017 National Outdoor Book Award

....................................

Though I am in the southeast, I own this field guide and find it very useful - Roy Cohutta Brown.

The Tent Caterpillars
By Terrence D. Fitzgerald
Cornell University Press, 1995
All aspects of the biology of tent caterpillars.
Comprehensive.

ISBN-13: 978-0801424564
ISBN-10: 0801424569

Butterflies of Oregon, Their Taxonomy, Distribution, and Biology
By Andrew D. Warren
C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Dept. of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, 2005
408 pages

Book / paper is referenced extensively by other authors (Pyle, James, Nunnallee, etc.)
in their butterfly books about Cascadia / Pacific Northwest.

 
 
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