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Family Evaniidae - Ensign Wasps

Evania appendigaster Ensign wasp? - Prosevania fuscipes Wasp - Evaniella semaeoda wasp - Hyptia Ensign Wasp?   - Evania appendigaster Female Evania appendigaster? - Evania appendigaster - female Fly / Wasp sp? Blue-eyed Ensign Wasp - Evania appendigaster
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" - Parasitoid Wasps)
Superfamily Evanioidea (Aulacid, Ensign, and Gasteruptiid Wasps)
Family Evaniidae (Ensign Wasps)
Other Common Names
Cockroach Egg Parasitoid Wasps; Hatchet Wasps; Nightshade Wasps
Explanation of Names
Evaniidae Latreille 1802
11 spp. in 4 genera in our area(1), ~440 spp. in >30 genera total
in our spp., forewing length from 2.5 mm (Hyptia floridana) to 7.5 mm (Prosevania fuscipes)(2)
The gaster is very small and oval, attached by a slender petiole to the propodeum, considerably above the base of the hind coxae. It is carried almost like a flag (thus the name).
Hyptia - our only genus with a single enclosed cell in the forewing and in [partially] lacking notauli; body entirely black to entirely ferruginous

Evania - our only genus with the fore, mid, and hind coxae spaced evenly; our single species readily distinguished by its large size (forewing 5.5-7 mm, only rivaled by P. fuscipes), body black, eyes blue

Evaniella - our only genus with the fore wing having multiple cells and length ≤5.0 mm; body often marked with ferruginous

Prosevania - our only genus with a large size (forewing 5.5-7 mm, only rivaled by E. appendigaster) and close spacing of the mid and hind coxae; our single species only recorded from urban environments is further noted by its long scapes, robust thorax, and dark coloration often with brown on the extremities
much of the world; in NA, eastern and southwestern(1)
Hyptia and Evaniella are found primarily in the woods. The introduced genera, Evania and Prosevania, are more often found in buildings in the cities, around where introduced species of cockroaches frequently occur.(1)
Parasitoids of the egg capsules of cockroaches
Life Cycle
Females have very short and stout ovipositors. They prefer newly laid eggs that have not developed hard, impervious coats. Each cockroach egg case contains about 50 eggs. Eating only a few provide sufficient food the the single wasp larva.(4)
When searching for their host, the wasps pump their posterior end rhythmically up and down, like a chopping of a hatchet.(4)
Internet References
Fact sheet (Brambila & Koehler 1997)
Works Cited
1.Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico
Karl V. Krombein, Paul D. Hurd, Jr., David R. Smith, and B. D. Burks. 1979. Smithsonian Institution Press.
2.The Nearctic Species of Evaniidae (Hymenoptera)
Townes, H. 1949. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 99 (3253):525–539.
3.Deans A.R., Yoder M.J., Dole K. (2013-) Evanioidea Online - catalog of information about evanioid wasps (Hymenoptera)
4.Hidden Company that Trees Keep: Life from Treetops to Root Tips
James B. Nardi. 2023. Princeton University Press.