Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Conozoa Saussure, 1884; type species (by later designation, W.F. Kirby, 1910): Conozoa behrensi Saussure (= sulcifrons)
Trimerotropis subgenus Agonozoa McNeill, 1900; type species: Trimerotropis texana L. Bruner
Agonozoa (McNeill) Caudell, 1911.
Explanation of Names
The name Agonozoa is available as a genus or subgenus for species of the Rebellis species group (i.e. hyalina, rebellis, texana) should they be segregated from more "typical" Conozoa (i.e. carinata, sulcifrons). Traditionally the "Agonozoa" types were treated as species of Trimerotropis following McNeill's work in 1900 and up to Otte's work in 1984, when they were moved back into Conozoa. They are often still listed as Trimerotropis species.
Seven species are currently recognized. They seem to form three groups:
Sulcifrons Group: C. sulcifrons & carinata
Nicola Group: C. clementina & nicola
Rebellis Group (= Agonozoa): C. rebellis, texana, & hyalina
Relatively small to medium-sized grasshoppers; slender, laterally compressed of body, usually with lower hind angles of pronotum produced somewhat downward and often squared or toothed (in two California island species this is more "normally" rounded). Tegmina commonly with two dark roughly rectangular spots near costal (lower when folded) margin that do not continue over the top when tegmina are folded over body. Hind wings yellow or yellowish, usually with at least a trace of dark band crossing near middle, and if present this with a spur projecting toward base of wing near front margin.
Most similar to species of Trimerotropis, and the differences are subtle, based on a combination of characters. Generally most Trimerotropis are larger and have dark bands (often broken and irregular) crossing the top of folded tegmina, or they do not have the lower rear angle of the lateral lobes of the pronotum produced downward nor angular or toothed. The "Fontana Group" of Trimerotropis are very similar in pattern, and probably closely related to Conozoa.
Genera of the tribe Psinidini may appear similar, but the top of the pronotum is usually not so nearly flat, and is much more irregular in shape with stronger sculpturing; the top of the head is more strongly sculpted; the head is proportionately larger; in most the body is wider (widening more from top to bottom); and the hind femur is usually shaped differently. Often they have wings in orange or red colors (which Conozoa do not), and they never have hind tibiae orange or red (which some Conozoa do).
Western North America (mostly west from the Rockies). Primarily within the United States, but one species enters extreme sw. Canada and a few occur into Mexico