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Family Sialidae - Alderflies

Nearctic Alderfly with eggs - Sialis Alderfly - Sialis Stone Fly - Sialis Chauliodes larva ? - Sialis Alderfly sp. - Sialis Alderfly - Sialis What Species is this? (Binomial name please) - Sialis Larson Trail Alderfly - Sialis
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Megaloptera (Alderflies, Dobsonflies, and Fishflies)
Family Sialidae (Alderflies)
Other Common Names
Orl-fly (1)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Two former species of Sialis were transferred to Protosialis (P. americana and P. glabella) by Liu et al. (2015)(2)(3)
Explanation of Names
see Sialis
24 spp. within 2 genera in our area;(4)(3) 75 extant spp. in 8 genera worldwide reported by Liu et al.(2) (84 extant plus 8 extinct spp. listed in LDL, of which 60 extant plus 4 extinct spp. are in Sialis)(5)
1. Protosialis (2 spp.)
2. Sialis (22 spp.)
Small to medium-sized, typically 10-25 mm
Medium-sized insects with soft bodies and large, delicate wings. Similar to fishflies, Corydalidae, usually smaller. These characters differentiate:
Wings folded roof-like over back at rest
Lack ocelli (simple eyes)
Fourth tarsal segment widened, has two lobes
Wing venation:

Key to Genera
Our two genera are separated as follows:(3)
1. Sialis - larva: mandibles with 2 subapical teeth; adult: head primarily black with yellowish markings
2. Protosialis - larva: mandibles with 3 subapical teeth; adult: head primarily yellowish with black markings
most speciose in Holarctic; among minor genera, one is Neotropical + Madagascar (12 spp.), two are restricted to Australia (4 spp.), one Oriental (3 spp.), one East Asian (2 spp.), and one South African (1 sp.)(5)
Adult are most often encountered in association with riparian vegetation adjacent to open water; larvae prefer ponds and lakes but can also be found in large rivers or pools in smaller, faster, streams where there is abundant silt. Some species appear to be restricted to warm streams, and some species are tolerant of polluted water.(5)
Adults generally appear to be largely non-feeding and may depend primarily on reserves sequestered in the larval stages.(5)
Life Cycle
Larvae are aquatic:
Adults found, briefly, on vegetation near the aquatic habitats; they are rather short-lived, rarely persisting over two weeks. Females deposit eggs in one or more masses, generally on the stems or leaves of plants overhanging water.(5)
Adults are relatively weak fliers and are rarely found far from water; most active on warm, sunny days, especially in the morning(5)
See Also
Plecoptera (Stoneflies) -- superficially similar but unrelated
Works Cited
1.American insects
Vernon L. Kellogg. 1905. H. Holt and Company.
2.Phylogeny of the family Sialidae inferred from morphological data, with implications for generic classification and historical´┐
Xingyue Liu, Fumio Hayashi, & Ding Yang. 2015. Cladistics 31(1): 18-49.
3.Alderflies, fishflies and dobsonflies (Insecta: Megaloptera) of the Interior Highlands, U.S.A.
David E. Bowles and Robert W. Sites. 2015. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Vol. 141. Issue 3, pp. 405-429.
4.Species catalog of the Neuroptera, Megaloptera, and Raphidioptera of America North of Mexico
Penny N.D., Adams P.A., Stange L.A. 1997. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 50: 39-114.
5.Neuropterida Species of the World catalogue (by J.D. Oswald)