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Family Limoniidae - Limoniid Crane Flies

tipulid 1 Brown crane fly - Epiphragma fasciapenne - male limoniid crane fly - Helius flavipes - female Antocha SBBG-SCL-TIC_000167 - Symplecta pilipes Diptera - Gonomyia crane flies – genus Limonia - Ormosia - male - female 9031702 crane
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon ("Nematocera" (Non-Brachycera))
Infraorder Tipulomorpha (Crane Flies)
Family Limoniidae (Limoniid Crane Flies)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
para- or polyphyletic group(1)(Krivosheina 2012); formerly treated as subfamily of Tipulidae
Explanation of Names
Limoniidae Rondani 1856
the largest tipulomorph family, with ~900 spp. in ca. 70 genera (+70 subgg.) in our area and ~10,800 spp. in >300 genera worldwide(2)(3) [~190 genera worldwide per(1)]
terminal (fourth) segment of maxillary palpus short or subequal to third segment (elongate, longer than first three segments combined in Tipulidae)
antennae usually with 14 or 16 segments (13 in Tipulidae)
Interpretation of the wing venation can be difficult, especially on the subcostal and radial fields. See Alexander (1927, 1929-1930)(4)
Print References
Alexander C.P. (1927) The interpretation of the radial field of the wing in the nematocerous Diptera, with special reference to the Tipulidae. Proc. Linn. Soc. NSW 52: 42-72 (Full text)
Alexander C.P. (1929-1930) A comparison of the systems of nomenclature that have been applied to the radial field of the wing in the Diptera. Proc. 4th Int. Congr. Entomol. 2: 700-707. (Full text)
Alexander C.P. (1966) The Diptera or true flies of Connecticut. Part VI. First Fascicle. Conn. St. Geol. & Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 64: 1-509. (Full text)
Works Cited
1.Order Diptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification...
Pape T., Blagoderov V., Mostovski M.B. 2011. Zootaxa 3148: 222–229.
2.USDA Diptera Site (now closed)
3.Oosterbroek P. (2014) Catalogue of the craneflies of the world
4.Manual of Nearctic Diptera Volume 1
Varies for each chapter; edited by J.F. McAlpine, B.V. Petersen, G.E. Shewell, H.J. Teskey, J.R. Vockeroth, D.M. Wood. 1981. Research Branch Agriculture Canada.