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Family Issidae - Issid Planthoppers

group on cactus - Traxus fulvus planthopper nymph - Exortus punctiferus Planthopper (Thionia simplex?) - Aplos simplex Issid Planthopper - Thionia elliptica Issid Planthopper - Aplos simplex Picumna chinai? - Picumna chinai Fowlerium acuta (Doering) - Fowlerium acuta Paralixes scutatus (Walker) - Paralixes scutatus
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hemiptera (True Bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Aphids and Allies)
Suborder Auchenorrhyncha (Free-living Hemipterans)
Infraorder Fulgoromorpha
Superfamily Fulgoroidea (Planthoppers)
Family Issidae (Issid Planthoppers)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Acanaloniidae and Caliscelidae are sometimes lumped with this family; several sw. genera (mostly restricted to CA) have been treated among Nogodinidae(1) "...because the wings are lacy, but the wax tails [of the nymphs] that can be spread when alarmed are characteristic of Issidae." (Dr Hamilton); Nogodinidae is not represented in our area (Dr Hamilton, pers. comm. to =v= 28.x.2010)
Explanation of Names
Issidae Spinola 1839
ca. 90 spp. in 20 genera in our area(2), ~930 spp. in ~180 genera worldwide(3)
wings usually shorter than in Flatidae, and without the warty surface where the forewings meet over the back.
in nymphs, the wax filaments projecting from the rear are straight and bundled, not bushy. (Note: Tropiduchid nymphs may also have straight wax filaments.)
Wang et al. (2016) has provided a first quantitative phylogenetic treatment of Issidae, placing the Thioniini (as Thioniinae) basal and sister to the remaining Issidae (Thionini had previously been subsumed under Issini) and suggesting that the current definition of Issidae may be too narrow. Wang et al. (2016) also revised the higher classification of Issidae. Some North American Issidae are treated as Subfamily Hemisphaeriinae Melichar, 1906 (incertae sedis) in Wang et al. 2016.
Print References
Wang, M.L., Y.L. Zhang and T. Bourgoin. 2016. Planthopper family Issidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha): Linking molecular phylogeny with classification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 105: 224-234.
Internet References
North American Issidae - C. R. Bartlett, University of Delaware (4)