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Natural enemies of the Coccinellidae: parasites, pathogens, and parasitoids.
By Riddick, E.W., T.E. Cottrell, and K.A. Kidd.
Biological Control 51: 306–312., 2009
Cite: 1583231
Full PDF

Riddick, E.W., T.E. Cottrell, and K.A. Kidd. 2009. Natural enemies of the Coccinellidae: parasites, pathogens, and parasitoids. Biological Control 51(2): 306–312.

Abstract
We review aspects of the life histories of representative enemies of coccinellids (both entomophagous and phytophagous species) and expose both potential and real effects that they have on life parameters of their hosts. Lady beetles are attacked by a variety of natural enemies (bacteria, fungi, mites, nematodes, protozoa, wasps, flies). Few of these enemies have the ability to alter significantly the population dynamics of their hosts. This review should encourage further research to help define the role of natural enemies in the population dynamics of coccinellids. Ultimately, the conservation of beneficial lady beetles and the management of nuisance and pestiferous ones should be major emphases of research on coccinellid–natural enemy interactions.

Keywords:
Beauveria bassiana
Coccipolipus hippodamiae
Dinocampus coccinellae
Hesperomyces virescens
Pediobius foveolatus

Population dynamics