Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Tettigonia atropunctata (Signoret, 1854)
Tettigonia circellata (Baker, 1898)
Cicadella atropunctata (Van Duzee, 1916)
Cicadella circellata (Van Duzee, 1916)
Neokolla circellata (Frazier, 1944)
Hordnia circellata (Oman, 1949)
Graphocephala atropunctata (Metcalf, 1965)
Explanation of Names
Graphocephala atropunctata (Signoret 1854)
atropunctata — 'dark-spotted'
A rather variable species ranging across a number of blue and green forms, usually based on population (due to genetic isolation). Populations in Northern California are often a dark green with fainter markings, while populations in Southern California are bright blue with darker markings.(1)
The wings usually have dark/black venation which can sometimes appear very bold and imperfect as if drawn on with bleeding ink. There is a series of spots on the head (which is sometimes paler than the rest of the body) and pronotum, the placement of which can vary slightly based on population. The scutellum is often a pale to bright yellow.
Nymphs of this species are white/pale yellow with yellow markings on the abdomen developing with age. They are indiscernible from G. fennahi nymphs from Northern California to British Columbia and identical to nymphs of G. versuta and G. cythura in Southern California.
widespread throughout the western U.S. (recorded throughout Mexico and Central America, though this may potentially be a separate cryptic species)
usually humid riparian areas, but can be found in a wide range of habitats
a wide range of associated with vines and woody plants.(2)
primarily found on wild grape and blackberry.
a major vector of Pierce's disease of grape in coastal CA(2)
Graphocephala cythura — a similarly green sister species with more subtle markings and more wing venation. note faint striping on the pronotum.
Graphocephala minuenda — a species often green in colouration also found in the southwest with very different head markings. note the very bold pigmentation of the lowest wing vein.
Hortensia similis — a green species found in the gulf states—primarily Florida (and widespread in the neotropics). note the markings on the head and scutellum.