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Family Mutillidae - Velvet Ants

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North American velvet ants form one of the world’s largest known Müllerian mimicry complexes
By Joseph S. Wilson Joshua P. Jahner Matthew L. Forister Erica S. Sheehan Kevin A. Williams James P. Pitts
Current Biology. VOLUME 25, ISSUE 16, PR704-R706, AUGUST 17, 2015
Full text:
Describes several Müllerian mimicry complexes in North American Mutillidae. Dasymutilla complexes are described in another paper.

Velvet Ants, Mutillidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera)
By Jeffrey C. Hertz
University of Florida, IFAS Extension, 2007
Publication EENY-378, revised 2015. Available at:

The velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) of South Carolina
By Manley D.G.
South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Tech. Bull. 1100, 55 pp., 1991

A key to genera and subgenera of Mutillidae (Hymenoptera) in America North of Mexico with description of a new genus
By Manley D.G., Pitts J.P.
J. Hym. Res. 11: 72-100, 2002

A revision Of Lomachaeta Mickel, with a new species of Smicromutilla Mickel (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae)
By James P. Pitts and Donald G. Manley
Zootaxa, Vol. 474, 10.11646/zootaxa.474.1.1., 2004
Smicromutilla has since been determined to be a junior synonym of Lomachaeta. (1)


Two new species of Lomachaeta, with a key to described species (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae)
By C. E. Mickel
The Pan-Pacific entomologist, Vol. 16, pp. 127-131, 1940

Eight new species of Lomachaeta Mickel and the synonymy of Smicromutilla Mickel (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae)
By Kevin A Williams and James P Pitts
Journal of Hymenoptera Research, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp .227-243, 2009

Does the thistledown velvet ant (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) mimic Creosote bush seeds? A phylogenetic approach
By Kevin A. Williams, Joseph S Wilson, and James Purser Pitts
Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting [Conference], 2010

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