Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Protorthodes rufula (Grote, 1874)
Dianthoecia rufula Grote, 1874
Explanation of Names
rufula: presumably from the Latin "rufus" (red); probably refers to the color of the forewing, and is the origin of the suggested common name Rufous Quaker.
Adult - forewing rust-colored, reddish-brown, or dull orangish; AM, PM, and subterminal lines distinct; orbicular and reniform spots dark brownish-gray, outlined in pale scales; dark scales along veins from PM line to outer margin give subterminal area a faintly streaked appearance; fringe dark; hindwing dirty gray, paler toward base, with dark gray veins and discal spot; fringe white.
Larva - dark gray with pink or red tinge dorsally and sometimes with a bronze sheen; pale middorsal and subdorsal lines and a segmental series of dark ovoid markings. The spiracles are brown with black rims. The cervical and anal shields are white with black lateral edging, The head is pale with brown and black reticulation and coronal stripes. (1)
British Columbia to California, east to at least Arizona and Utah.
Adults fly mainly from April to September in California.
Larval host: rosaceous trees and shrubs including Malus, Prunus, and Pyrus.
Crumb, S.E., 1956. The Larvae of the Phalaenidae [Noctuidae]. U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin
1135: 127. (3)
Lafontaine, J.D, J.B. Walsh & C.D. Ferris 2014. A revision of the genus Protorthodes
McDunnough with descriptions of a new genus and four new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Eriopygini). ZooKeys 421: 139-179 (multiple formats