Subspecies Raphia frater frater
Toward a Stable Global Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) TaxonomyBy Keegan, K.L., Rota, J., Zahiri, R., Zilli, A., Wahlberg, N., Schmidt, B.C., Lafontaine, J.D., Goldstein, P.Z., Wagner, D.L.
Insect Systematics and Diversity, 5(3): 1-24., 2021
Noctuoidea Noctuidae (Part) Pantheinae, Raphiinae, Balsinae, AcronictinaeBy Schmidt, B.C. & G.G. Anweiler
The Moths of North America, 2020
Schmidt, B.C. & G.G. Anweiler, 2020. Noctuidae (Part) Pantheinae, Raphiinae, Balsinae, Acronictinae. The Moths of North America, Fascicle 25.4: 1-479
Order from Wedge Entomological Research Foundation
479 pages, 130 species accounts, 31 color plates, 44 monochrome plates. Hardbound. ISBN 978-0-9796633-4-5. Published in 2020 by the Wedge Entomological Research Foundation.
The New World Noctuidae of the subfamilies Pantheinae (10 genera, 34 species), Raphiinae (1 genus, 1 species), Balsinae (1 genus, 3 species), and Acronictinae (5 genera, 92 species) are revised. With the exception of the Neotropical Pantheinae genera Lichnoptera Herrich-Schaffer, Gaujonia Dognin and Bathyra Walker, 130 species are treated, 102 of which occur in the United States and/or Canada; 26 are restricted to Mexico and/or Central America; one Eurasian species that could occur in Alaska/Yukon, and one European species that has been introduced as a biological control agent. Four new genera are described, two new subgenera of the genus Acronicta Ochsenheimer are proposed, fifteen new species are described, and one new subspecies is described. Six neotypes and 18 lectotypes are designated, and eleven species are subsumed into synonymy. Two species are raised from synonymy. Genitalia, dot range maps and adults are illustrated, the latter in colour. Colour larval photographs for 77 species are also provided.
Six new species and one new subspecies of noctuid moths from western United States of America and Mexico...By Crabo, L.G., P.C. Hammond, T. Mustelin & D.L. Wikle
ZooKeys, 788: 201-239, 2018
Crabo, L.G., P.C. Hammond, T. Mustelin & D.L. Wikle, 2018. Six new species and one new subspecies of noctuid moths from western United States of America and Mexico (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). ZooKeys, 788: 201-239