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Suborder Caelifera - Grasshoppers

Very colorful Plains Lubber - Brachystola magna - female Brown Boopedon - Boopedon gracile - female Toad Lubber - Phrynotettix robustus - male Thalassica Grasshopper - Trimerotropis thalassica - female H. capito - Hippopedon capito - male Hopper nymph 5.17.15 Grasshopper - Melanoplus viridipes-species-group - female Melanoplus gracilis - Graceful Grasshopper - Melanoplus gracilis - male
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Orthoptera (Grasshoppers, Crickets, Katydids)
Suborder Caelifera (Grasshoppers)
Other Common Names
Short-horned Orthoptera
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Acridioidea
Orthoptera, section Saltatoria Fieber, 1852
Classification follows Orthoptera Species File; see Taxonomy Proposals topic here.
Explanation of Names
Ander (1939) first divided the Orthoptera into suborders Caelifera and Ensifera (OSF).
Apparently from Latin caelare, (noun caelatura), to engrave in relief, plus -fer, bearing (Internet searches) (1)--likely refers to the sculptured integument of many in this group. The related term Ensifera means sword-bearing.
Numbers
In North America, five families, about 660 species, most (620 or so) in family Acrididae (totals from individual family pages).
Worldwide, about 2,400 genera, 11,000 species (Internet references).
Identification
The group that contains the insects familiar to most people as grasshoppers. Also includes the Pygmy Mole 'Crickets' (Tridactylidae), which are not closely related to crickets. Characteristics:
back legs large, modified for jumping
antennae usually shorter than body
antennae have fewer than 30 segments (more than 30 in Ensifera)
ovipositor short (not obvious), structural details--4 valves, as opposed to six in Ensifera (see Tree of Life)
auditory organ (tympanum) if present, is on the abdomen (typically on front tibiae in Ensifera)
stridulation (if performed) typically accomplished by rubbing serration of inner surface of hind femur across veins of front wing--mechanism typically involves just the forewings in Ensifera
Keys in (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), also see Orthoptera Info page, comment by David J. Ferguson
Food
Feed almost exclusively on plants, though some will scavenge dead plant and animal material at times.
Remarks
The fungus Entomophaga grylli attacks grasshoppers and is used as a biocontrol Cornell University.
See Also
Ensifera - Long-horned Orthoptera
Print References
Gordh, A Dictionary of Entomology, entry for caelate (1)
Castner, p. 64 (11)
Bland, pp. 89-90 (12)
Ander. 1939. Opuscula Entomologica, Lund. 2(Suppl.): 306 pp., division of order Orthoptera into two suborders (quoted by OSF)
Hebard, M. (1934). The Dermaptera and Orthoptera of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin, Vol. 20, No. 3: 125-279. (Biodiversity Heritage Library) (Illinois Digital Environment for Access to Learning and Scholarship)
Internet References
classification plus common name reference, literature citations, synonym, included taxa (Orthoptera Species File)
Wikipedia--Grasshopper
Works Cited
1.A Dictionary of Entomology
George Gordh, David H. Headrick. 2003. CABI Publishing.
2.Guide to the Grasshoppers of Wisconsin
Kathryn Kirk and Charles R. Bomar. 2005. Bureau of Integrated Science Services, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
3.The North American Grasshoppers, volume I, Acrididae, Gomphocerinae and Acridinae
Daniel Otte. 1981. Harvard.
4.The North American Grasshoppers, volume II, Acrididae, Oedipodinae
Daniel Otte. 1984. Harvard.
5.Key to the Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) of Florida
Trevor Randall Smith, Jason G. Froeba, and John L. Capinera. 2004. Florida Entomologist, Vol. 87, No. 4.
6.Orthoptera of North-Eastern America
W. S. Blatchley. 1920. The Nature Publishing Company.
7.Synopsis of Orthoptera (sensu lato) of Alabama
Matt E. Dakin, Jr., and Kirby L. Hays. 1970. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, No. 404.
8.Grasshoppers (Acrididae) of Colorado: identification, biology and management
John L. Capinera, T. S. Sechrist. 1982. Colorado State University Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 584S.
9.A Manual of the Grasshoppers of New Mexico
10.The grasshoppers of Oklahoma (Orthoptera: Acrididae)
Stanley Coppock Jr. 1962. Oklahoma State University.
11.Photographic Atlas of Entomology and Guide To Insect Identification
James L. Castner. 2000. Feline Press.
12.How to Know the Insects
Roger G. Bland, H.E. Jaques. 1978. WCB/McGraw-Hill.