Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Euxoa auxiliaris (Grote, 1873)
Agrotis auxiliaris Grote, 1873
Agrotis introferens Grote, 1875
Agrotis agrestis Grote, 1877
Phyloygenetic sequence # 933309
Forewing length 1.7-2.2 cm (Powell & Opler, 2009).(1)
Adults - three forms described in Powell & Opler, 2009.
Throughout the west, from southern Northwest Territories south to Mexico, east to Michigan, Missouri and Texas (Powell & Opler, 2009).(1)
Seasonal migrant. In early summer it flies to higher elevations where in some areas it is commonly eaten by grizzly bears. Returns to lower elevations in the fall, where the females oviposit.
Larvae feed on plants in 16 families but prefer cereal grasses. Adults take nectar (Powell & Opler, 2009).(1)
Adults are very capable fliers. Specimens tethered in a flight machine flew upward of 50 miles, one flying for 23 hours and 133 miles! (Koerwitz & Pruess 1964).
Eisner, T. & M. Eisner 1992. Euxoa auxiliaris: A moth that sprays. Psyche 99: 3-14
Grote, A.R. 1873. A study of North American Noctuidae. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci
. 1: 96
Lafontaine, J.D., 1987. The Moths of America North of Mexico, Fascicle 27.2
. The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation. p. 30; pl. 1.6-8.(2)
Powell, J.A., and P.A. Opler 2009. Moths of Western North America
. University of California Press. plate 57, figs. 8, 10; p. 310.(1)