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Family Pteromalidae - Pteromalid Wasps

Cotesia congregata? Unknown Chalcidoidea (Pteromalidae?) Parasitic Wasp 21 (July2010) - Dipara Encyrtid from small, white, hairy midrib oak gall Tiny wasp wasp? Chalcid Wasp - Pteromalid Pachyneuron sp.?
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" - Parasitoid Wasps)
Superfamily Chalcidoidea (Chalcidoid Wasps)
Family Pteromalidae (Pteromalid Wasps)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
probably polyphyletic(1); vaguely defined and rather artificial chalcidoid assemblage: for example, it does not have the enlarged metafemora of the Chalcididae (except Chalcedectini), it does not have the quadrate (rectangular) pronotum of the Eurytomidae (except Spalanginae), it does not have the exserted ovipositor of the Torymidae (except for 2 genera)... (2)
*Epichrysomallinae and Sycoryctinae recently transferred to Pteromalidae. Cratominae & Panstenoninae sunk into Pteromalinae(3)
close to 600 spp. in >200 genera of 18 subfamilies in our area, ca. 3500 spp. in almost 600 genera worldwide placed in ~30 subfamilies(1) [38 taxa recognized as subfamilies by different workers are briefly discussed in(4)]
a wide variety of hosts; adults of some species feed on the body fluids of the host after puncturing it with the ovipositor
Some are hyperparasitoids
Internet References
Works Cited
1.Universal Chalcidoidea Database
2.A handbook of the families of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). 2nd Edition
Grissell E.E., Schauff M. E. 1997. Ent. Soc. Wash. 87pp.
3.A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)
Heraty J.M., Burks R.A., Cruaud A., Gibson G.A.P., Liljeblad J., Munro J., Rasplus J.-Y., Delvare G., Janšta P., Gumovsky A.... 2013. Cladistics 29: 466–542.
4.Hymenoptera of the world: an identification guide to families
Goulet H., Huber J., eds. 1993. Agriculture Canada Publication 1894/E. 668 pp.
5.Ribes-Escolà A. (2007-2014) Himenòpters de Ponent