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Family Pteromalidae - Pteromalid Wasps

Small Golden Metallic Fly Mini Wasp Amotura caelata Grissell 1991 - Chalcedectus caelata - female Pteromalid - female Pteromalidae from Bruchinae - female 8036952 wasp Female, parasitic Apocrita? - Leptofoenus rufus - female Tiny Wall Wasp
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" - Parasitoid Wasps)
Superfamily Chalcidoidea (Chalcidoid Wasps)
Family Pteromalidae (Pteromalid Wasps)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
probably polyphyletic(1); vaguely defined and rather artificial chalcidoid assemblage: for example, it does not have the enlarged metafemora of the Chalcididae (except Chalcedectini), it does not have the quadrate (rectangular) pronotum of the Eurytomidae (except Spalanginae), it does not have the exserted ovipositor of the Torymidae (except for 2 genera)... (2)
*Epichrysomallinae and Sycoryctinae recently transferred to Pteromalidae. Cratominae & Panstenoninae sunk into Pteromalinae(3)
close to 600 spp. in >200 genera of 18 subfamilies in our area, ca. 3500 spp. in almost 600 genera worldwide placed in ~30 subfamilies(1) [38 taxa recognized as subfamilies by different workers are briefly discussed in(4)]
a wide variety of hosts; adults of some species feed on the body fluids of the host after puncturing it with the ovipositor
Some are hyperparasitoids
Print References
Ashmead, W. H. 1904. Classification of the chalcid flies, or the superfamily Chalcidoidea, with descriptions of new species in the Carnegie museum, collected in South America by Herbert H. Smith. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum 1(4): 225-551. (Biodiversity Heritage Library)
Works Cited
1.Universal Chalcidoidea Database
2.A handbook of the families of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). 2nd Edition
Grissell E.E., Schauff M. E. 1997. Ent. Soc. Wash. 87pp.
3.A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)
Heraty J.M., Burks R.A., Cruaud A., Gibson G.A.P., Liljeblad J., Munro J., Rasplus J.-Y., Delvare G., Janšta P., Gumovsky A.... 2013. Cladistics 29: 466–542.
4.Hymenoptera of the world: an identification guide to families
Goulet H., Huber J., eds. 1993. Agriculture Canada Publication 1894/E. 668 pp.
5.Ribes-Escolà A. (2007-2014) Himenòpters de Ponent