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Multimodal life-cycle variation in 13- and 17-year periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada).
By Marshall, D.C., K.B.R. Hill, J.R. Cooley.
Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 90: 211-226., 2017
Cite: 1678466 with citation markup [cite:1678466]
BioOne

Marshall, D.C., K.B.R. Hill, J.R. Cooley. 2017. Multimodal life-cycle variation in 13- and 17-year periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 90: 211-226. (Issue dated July 2017, but first published online in June, 2018.)

Abstract

Periodical cicadas, known for strict life-cycle lengths of 13 or 17 yr, actually exhibit developmental plasticity in cycle length. This variation tends to occur in 1- and 4-yr increments for both life-cycle types, with the largest events involving 4-yr accelerations of the 17-yr species. The pattern has stimulated hypotheses to explain brood formation and life-cycle evolution, but most of the evidence is anecdotal. We present the first quantitative evidence confirming that a site with a 4-yr acceleration does not necessarily experience comparable emergence in the following year, and we provide the first density estimate for a 4-yr early emergence of 17-yr cicadas (1.28/m2, within the range of published estimates for on-schedule emergences). We also document a 4-yr early 13-yr emergence—cicadas apparently emerging in 9 yr. Multimodal life-cycle patterns spanning −4 to 4 yr are evident in both 13- and 17-yr cicadas.