Family Culicidae - Mosquitoes
Effects of temperature and larval diet on development rates and survival of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in north Queensland.By Tun-Lin et al.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology 14(1): 31–37., 2000
W. Tun-Lin, T.R. Burkot and B.H. Kay. 2000. Effects of temperature and larval diet on development rates and survival of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti
in north Queensland, Australia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 14(1): 31–37.
Immature development times, survival rates and adult size (wing-lengths) of the mosquito Aedes aegypti
(L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) were studied in the laboratory at temperatures of 10–40°C. The duration of development from egg eclosion (hatching of the first instar) to adult was inversely related to temperature, ranging from 7.2 ± 0.2 days at 35°C to 39.7 ± 2.3 days at 15°C. The minimum temperature threshold for development (t) was determined as 8.3 ± 3.6°C and the thermal constant (K) was 181.2 ± 36.1 day-degrees above the threshold. Maximum survival rates of 88–93% were obtained between 20 and 30°C. Wing-length was inversely related to temperature. The sex ratio (♀:♂) was 1 : 1 at all temperatures tested (15, 20, 25 and 35°C) except 30°C (4 : 3).
Pandemic dengue in Caribbean countries and the southern United States — Past, present and potential problems.By Ehrenkranz et al.
The New England Journal of Medicine 285: 1460-1469., 1971
N Engl J Med
N. Joel Ehrenkranz, M.D., Arnoldo K. Ventura, Ph.D., Raul R. Cuadrado, Dr.P.H., William L. Pond, Ph.D., and John E. Porter, Ph.D. 1971. Pandemic Dengue in Caribbean Countries and the Southern United States — Past, Present and Potential Problems. The New England Journal of Medicine 285: 1460-1469.
THE outbreaks of dengue in the Caribbean area in 1963–64 and 1968–691 have served as reminders of the continuing presence of dengue in the Western Hemisphere, and the threat of recurrence of epidemic dengue in the southern United States.
Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever.By Gubler, D.J.
Clinical Microbiology Reviews 11(3): 480–496., 1998
Gubler, D.J. 1998. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 11(3): 480–496.
Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne disease is the most important tropical infectious disease after malaria, with an estimated 100 million cases of dengue fever, 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 25,000 deaths annually. The reasons for this resurgence and emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the waning years of the 20th century are complex and not fully understood, but demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure changes in the past 30 years have contributed greatly.
Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse): a potential vector of Zika virus in Singapore.By Wong et al.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7(8): e2348., 2013
Wong PS, Li MZ, Chong CS, Ng LC, Tan CH. 2013. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus
(Skuse): a potential vector of Zika virus in Singapore. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7(8): e2348.
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes
mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti
is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus
has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus
has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus
to transmit ZIKV.
Aedes albopictus in the United States: rapid spread of a potential disease vector.By Moore CG, Francy DB, Eliason DA, Monath TP.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 4(3):356-61., 1988
Moore CG, Francy DB, Eliason DA, Monath TP. 1988. Aedes albopictus
in the United States: rapid spread of a potential disease vector. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 4(3):356-61.
, the Asian "tiger mosquito," was found in Houston, Texas, in 1985. Aedes albopictus
is primarily a forest edge inhabiting species that has readily adapted to the container habitats produced by humans. Although not yet incriminated in the spread of any disease in the Americas, it has been repeatedly implicated in epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever transmission in Asia. It is a competent laboratory vector of La Crosse, yellow fever and other viruses, and can transovarially transmit at least 15 viruses.