Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada
Clickable Guide
Moths Butterflies Flies Caterpillars Flies Dragonflies Flies Mantids Cockroaches Bees and Wasps Walkingsticks Earwigs Ants Termites Hoppers and Kin Hoppers and Kin Beetles True Bugs Fleas Grasshoppers and Kin Ticks Spiders Scorpions Centipedes Millipedes

Upcoming Events

Photos of insects and people from the 2022 BugGuide gathering in New Mexico, July 20-24

National Moth Week was July 23-31, 2022! See moth submissions.

Photos of insects and people from the Spring 2021 gathering in Louisiana, April 28-May 2

Photos of insects and people from the 2019 gathering in Louisiana, July 25-27

Photos of insects and people from the 2018 gathering in Virginia, July 27-29

Photos of insects and people from the 2015 gathering in Wisconsin, July 10-12

Previous events


Family Braconidae - Braconid Wasps

Wasp - female Icheneumonidae 1 Braconid from red maple leaf tie Bracon sp.? Another Atanycolus? - female Microgastrinae sp. Parasitoid Wasp (Ichneumonid Wasp) Atanycolus cappaerti
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" - Parasitoid Wasps)
Superfamily Ichneumonoidea (Braconid and Ichneumonid Wasps)
Family Braconidae (Braconid Wasps)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
classification in the guide follows(1)
>1700 spp. in >200 genera of 36 subfamilies in our area; close to 20,000 spp. in >1000 genera of ~50 subfamilies worldwide. Ghahari et al. (2003) estimate 120,000 species.
subfamilies not yet in the guide:
Adeliinae ( spp. in 2 genera in our area)
Dirrhopinae ( spp. in 1 genus in our area)
Exothecinae ( spp. in _ genera in our area)
Hormiinae ( spp. in _ genera in our area)
Masoninae (2 spp. in 1 genus in our area. Rare. southeastern USA)
Meteorideinae ( spp. in 1 genus in our area)
Microtypinae ( spp. in 1 genus in our area)
Rhysipolinae ( spp. in _ genera in our area)
Rhyssalinae ( spp. in _ genera in our area)
rarely over 15 mm; smallest 1-3 mm
Antennae apparently with 16 or more segments
generalized braconid wing vein plan. Note that there is no second recurrent vein, as in Ichneumonidae.
Female ovipositor from very long to short
For more info see also (2)
Diagrams of braconid body and wing morphology in (3)
Life Cycle
Many life histories adapted to parasitizing hosts as diverse as aphids, bark beetles, and foliage-feeding caterpillars. Many species are egg-larval parasitoids, laying eggs within host eggs and then not developing until the host is in the larval stage. Unlike ichneumon wasps, many pupate in silken cocoons outside the body of the host and others spin cocoons entirely apart from the host.(4) Also unlike ichneumonid wasps, very few braconids use host pupae to complete their life cycles, except for fly parasitoids in Alysiinae and Opiinae.
Examples of life cycles:

Interestingly, phytophagous primary gall-forming species exist, at least in the subfamily Doryctinae (Marsh, 1991).
molecular evidence supports the monophyly of the cluster of subfamilies with cyclostome "mouth"(1) defined by the dorsoventrally short clypeus and the concave labrum, bordered ventrally by the mandibles:

Some are used for pest control, especially in agriculture.
Print References
Marsh, P. M. 1991. Description of a phytophagous doryctinae braconid from Brazil (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 93:92-95.
Works Cited
1.Molecular phylogenetics of Braconidae (Hym.:Ichneumonoidea) based on multiple nuclear genes, and implications for classification
Sharonowsky B.J., Ashley P.G., Dowling P.G., Sharkey M.J. 2011. Systematic Entomology 36: 549-572.
2.Manual of the New World Genera of the Family Braconidae (Hymenoptera)
Wharton, R.A., P.M. Marsh, M.J. Sharkey (Eds). 1997. International Society of Hymenopterists.
3.A Revision of the Tetrasphaeropyx Ashm. Lineage of the Genus Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae)
Fortier, Joseph C. 2009. Magnolia Press.
4.Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects
Norman F. Johnson, Charles A. Triplehorn. 2004. Brooks Cole.