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Family Cerambycidae - Longhorn Beetles

Small Longhorn - Anelaphus formerly-parallelus-maybe-undescribed Cerambycidae, elytral tips - Lepturges symmetricus Beetle - Ropalopus sanguinicollis Elaphidion mimeticum Purplish longhorn - Monochamus Analeptura lineola Orange Beetle - Pidonia aurata Stenosphenus sobrius? - Stenosphenus sobrius
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga (Water, Rove, Scarab, Long-horned, Leaf and Snout Beetles)
No Taxon (Series Cucujiformia)
Superfamily Chrysomeloidea (Longhorn and Leaf Beetles)
Family Cerambycidae (Longhorn Beetles)
Other Common Names
Longhorns, Longicorns, Capricorns, Round-headed Borers, Timber Beetles, Sawyer Beetles(1)
Explanation of Names
Cerambycidae Latreille 1802
Greek kerambex (κεραμβυξ), a type of horned beetle; may be derived from karabos (καραβοσ) 'beetle' + keras (κερας) 'horn'(2)
~1000 spp. in 300+ genera in our area, >11,300 spp. in almost 2,000 genera in the Western Hemisphere(3) and >30,000 spp. in >5000 genera worldwide(4)(5)
Overview of our fauna
Classification follows(1), except that we keep the Disteniinae as a subfamily. * –taxa not yet in the guide, with links to Bezark’s Catalog(6) for quick reference. Attention editors: As guide pages for these taxa are added, please replace these links with links to the guide pages.
Family Cerambycidae
Tribe Disteniini Elytrimitatrix
Tribe Parandrini Parandra · Neandra
Subfamily LAMIINAE
3-150 mm(4); in our area, 3-60 mm(7)
Keys and visual guides:
Suprageneric taxa(8)
World fauna(9)
Nearctic genera(4)
New World spp.(6)
Canada & AK(10)
Eastern US(11)
Western US(12)
Northeastern NA(13)
Florida(15) (good for most se. US spp.)
N. Dakota(19)
Texas (Quinn 2017)
worldwide from sea level up to 4,200 m elevations, subject to host plant availability(1)
Larval: Most species feed within dead, dying or even decaying wood, but some taxa can use living plant tissue. Girdlers (adults of the Onciderini, larvae of genera in the tribes Methiini, Hesperophanini and Elaphidiini) sever living branches or twigs, with the larvae developing within the nutrient-rich distal portion. The larvae of a few species move freely through the soil, feeding externally upon roots or tunneling up under the root crown.(1)
Many adults (esp. the brightly colored ones) feed on flowers.(7) Adult feeding habits variable; some species take nourishment from sap, leaves, blossoms, fruit, bark, and fungi, often not associated with larval hosts; others take little or no food(1)
Feeding biology summarized here(20)
Life Cycle
The life spans in temperate regions typically range from 1 to 3 years, but cycles of 2-3 months to decades have been documented. Most of the lifetime is spent in the larval stage; the adults usually emerge, disperse, reproduce, and die within a few days to months. Cellulose digestion appears to be aided primarily by enzymes rather than symbiotic microorganisms. In many cases, Cerambycidae are primary borers, providing a vital "first step" in the biorecycling of wood.(1)
Eggs. Larvae. Pupae
See Also
Longhorn lookalikes:
Works Cited
1.Checklist of the Oxypeltidae, Vesperidae, Disteniidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the Western Hemisphere
Bezark L.G., Monné M.A. 2013. 470 pp.
2.The Century Dictionary: an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language
3.Checklist of the Oxypeltidae, Vesperidae, Disteniidae and Cerambycidae, (Coleoptera) of the Western Hemisphere. 2020 Edition
Bezark L.G. 2020. 507 pp.
4.American Beetles, Volume II: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea
Arnett, R.H., Jr., M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley and J. H. Frank. (eds.). 2002. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL.
5.Order Coleoptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification...
Ślipiński S.A., Leschen R.A.B., Lawrence J.F. 2011. Zootaxa 3148: 203–208.
6.New World Cerambycidae Catalog
7.Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects
Norman F. Johnson, Charles A. Triplehorn. 2004. Brooks Cole.
8.Nearns et al. (2012-2013) Longicorn ID: Tool for diagnosing cerambycoid families, subfamilies, and tribes
9.Barševskis A. et al., eds. (2015) Cerambycidae of the World
10.Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Canada and Alaska
Bousquet Y., Laplante S., Hammond H.E.J., Langor D.W. 2017. TBA. 300 pp.
11.Illustrated Key to the Longhorned Woodboring Beetles of the Eastern United States
Steven W. Lingafelter. 2008. Coleopterists Society.
12.LaBonte J.R., Valley S.A., Vlach J., Niwa C. (2013) Screening aid for the Cerambycidae of the western U.S.A. Version 061313
13.Field Guide to Northeastern Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
Douglas Yanega. 1996. Illinois Natural History Survey.
14.A survey of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) or longhorned beetles of Colorado
Heffern, DJ. 1998. Fort Collins.
15.Thomas M.C., Hill S., Morris R.F., Nearns G. () The Cerambycidae of Florida
16.The Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) of Idaho.
Rice, M.E., F. Merickel and T.C. MacRae. 2017. The Coleopterists Bulletin 71(4): 667-678.
17.A checklist of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Montana with distribution maps
Hart C.J., Cope J.S., Ivie M.A. 2013. Col. Bull. 67: 133-148.
18.The longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae) of Nebraska: New state records, a checklist of known species, and distribution maps.
Stephen M. Spomer. 2014. The Coleopterists Bulletin 68(2): 297-315.
19.Cerambycidae of North Dakota
Guy A. Hanley. 2005. Minot State University.
20.Cerambycidae of the World: biology and pest management
Wang Q., ed. 2017. CRC Press. 628 pp.