Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Explanation of Names
Apiocera Westwood 1835
'pear-horn', refers to the shape of antennomere 3
Males are easily recognized by their pair of large, dark, bulbous, hemitergites (the dorsolateral covering of the terminalia arising as lateral posterior projections of the ninth tergite(1)
Females have short, tapering, cylindrical sclerites near the end of the abdomen, the tip covered by numerous, stout, outwardly-radiating, spines.
Some species have distinctive abdominal markings, but for most species ID must be confirmed via examination of male terminalia, visible by properly spreading hemitergites (see here
The genus Apiocera occurs in four widely separated regions of the world, and species in each region are associated with their own subgenus, as listed below:
1) subgenus Anypenus
, 4 spp.
, South America (Chile, Argentina)
2) subgenus Apiocera
, 74 spp.
3) subgenus Pyrocera
, 68 spp.
, Western North America (British Columbia, Western U. S., and Mexico)
4) subgenus Ripidosyrma
, 3 spp.
, South Africa
Cazier M. (1985). New species and notes on flies belonging to the genus Apiocera
(Diptera, Apioceridae). American Museum Novitates 2837: 1-28. (Full text
Wharton R.A. (1983). The biology of Apiocera haruspex Osten Saken (Diptera: Apioceridae) in central California, and comparison with other Asiloidea. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 58: 296-301
Yeates, D. K. and M. E. Irwin (1996). Apioceridae (Insecta: Diptera): cladistic reappraisal and biogeography. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 116:247-301.
Portal page for photos of type specimens
: First click on the species name of interest; then on the "details" link on the resulting page; and finally on the thumbnail images therein.