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Family Membracidae - Typical Treehoppers

Treehopper under Oaks  - Telamona decorata Membracid 4 - Telamona excelsa Antianthe expansa nymph - Antianthe expansa Treehopper - Entylia carinata Treehopper, Archasia palladia? - Archasia pallida Micrutalis occidentalis Enchenopa - Enchenopa latipes UDCC_TCN 00008377 - Heliria strombergi - male
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hemiptera (True Bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Aphids and Allies)
Suborder Auchenorrhyncha (True Hoppers)
Infraorder Cicadomorpha (Cicadas, Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, and Treehoppers)
Superfamily Membracoidea (Leafhoppers and Treehoppers)
Family Membracidae (Typical Treehoppers)
Other Common Names
Thorn Bugs
Explanation of Names
from Greek membrax (μεμβραξ) 'a kind of cicada'(1)
266 spp. in ~60 genera in our area(2), ~3,500 spp. in ~430 genera worldwide, arranged in 9 subfamilies and dozens of tribes(3)(4)
checklists of local faunas:(5)(6)(7)(8) --more sources listed in(9)
Overview of our fauna* –taxa not yet in the guide; questionable records omitted
Subfamily DARNINAE
Not placed to tribe: Antianthe · Tropidarnis
Not yet in the guide:
Antonae Stål 1867 [1 sp., WA‒CA]
Aphetea Fowler 1895 [1 sp., CA]
Ashmeadea Goding 1892 [1 sp., AZ]
Darnis Fabricius 1803 [1 questionable record, CA]
Membracis Fabricius 1775 [2 spp., CA FL]
Scalmophorus Fowler 1894 [1 sp., AZ]
Tumecauda Goding 1930 [1 sp., AZ]
questionable records: Bolbonota Amyot & Serville 1843 [1 sp., ?FL], Notocera Amyot & Serville 1843 [1 sp., ?CO], Trachytalis Fowler 1895 [1 sp., ?CA])
2‒20 mm (most <12 mm)(10)
differ from related families in having a large pronotum that extends back over the abdomen and (often) covers the head; many species appear humpbacked or thorn-like; others have spines, horns or keels

illustrated checklist of FL spp. in(6)
Most spp. are host-specific and feed on trees and shrubs, some on herbaceous plants
Life Cycle
Eggs overwinter and hatch in the spring. Nymphs drop to the ground. They return to trees to lay eggs. Most species are solitary, but many occur in groups or clusters and exhibit presocial behavior--adults often stay near nymphs, tending them. Many have mutualistic relationships with ants--the ants fend off predators and/or parasites and collect sugary fluid secreted by the hoppers.
Only a few species are considered pests; most of the damage is caused by egg-laying