Explanation of Names
the name "blister beetles" refers to the ability of causing skin blisters if handled
ca. 410 spp. in 22 genera of 3 subfamilies in our area, ~3000 spp. in 120 genera of 4 subfamilies worldwide(1)(2)
Overview of our fauna
Medium to large beetles, typically elongated and rather cylindrical, often found on flowers, foliage.
Head broad, generally rectangular when viewed from above.
Pronotum cylindrical and narrower than both the head and base of elytra.
Elytra not flat, typically rolled over abdomen.
Body soft, somewhat leathery.
Antennae filiform (thread-like) or moniliform (beaded).
Tarsi 5-5-4; claw either toothed or lobed.
Blister beetles of e. US are generally dull in color; western ones often very colorful(4)
, apparently aposematic
Key to New World genera in(5)
worldwide and across NA, with greatest diversity in arid/semiarid areas (sw. US)(1)
For larval food, most utilize the provisions and larvae of native ground nesting bees (esp. Megachilidae
); several genera (in our area, Epicauta & Linsleya
) utilize grasshopper eggs (Acridoidea)(3)
Adults feed on leaves and flowers of several families of plants, particularly Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae(1)
Practically all major and minor food and forage crops are attacked by meloids to a greater of lesser extent. (6)
Life cycle is hypermetamorphic
. Larvae are parasitoids. Eggs are laid in batches in soil near nests of hosts, sometimes in nest of bee host, or on stems, foliage, or flowers. Larvae undergo hypermetamorphosis--first instar larvae (usually called triungulins
) are active, have well-developed legs and antennae. These typically search for hosts. Later instars tend to have reduced legs and be less active, having found hosts. There is a coarctate
(pseudopupal) stage, which is usually how the larvae overwinter. Life cycle may be as short as 30 days, or as long as three years. It is typically one year, corresponding to that of host(1)(4)(7)
Triungulins of some meloids, e.g. in Meloe
, aggregate and attract male bees with chemical signals (Saul-Gershenz & Millar 2006
Larvae are parasitic of grasshopper eggs or in the nest of bees.(8)
Pressing, rubbing, or squashing blister beetles may cause them to exude hemolymph which contains the blistering compound cantharidin
. Ingestion of blister beetles can be fatal. Eating blister beetles with hay may kill livestock. The three-striped blister beetle Epicauta occidentalis
can especially be a problem for livestock as they get caught in with the alfalfa feed. Several other species in Epicauta
and M. niger
) may be present in alfalfa as well. Cantharidin, commercially known as Spanish Fly, may be present in higher concentrations in some species of Epicauta
(Capinera et. al., 1985).
Males of some other beetles (notably, Pedilus
and some Anthicidae
) seek out blister beetles, climb onto them and lick off the exuded cantharidin. These other beetles, resistant to the toxic effects, use the agent to impress their females; the cantharidin is transferred to the female with the sperm packet during mating. The eggs the female lays are coated with cantharidin to protect them from predators. Some plant bugs (e.g. Aoplonema
) are also attracted to meloid beetles. (based on Jim McClarin's comment)
In similar families, head is usually not
wider than pronotum(4)
have elytra flat, not rolled · Oedemeridae
have no "neck" · Pyrochroidae
have antennae serrate (saw-like) or pectinate (comb-like)
The other two families of beetles producing bee-parasitizing triungulin stages are Ripiphoridae and Cleridae.
Cohen, A. C. and J. D. Pinto. (1977). An evaluation of xeric adaptiveness of several species of blister beetles (Meloidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 70: 741-749.
Overview of FL fauna
- Selander & Fasulo, 2010 [Cite:185010]
- image gallery & info on world fauna (9)
- Mike Quinn, 2015