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Family Bombyliidae - Bee Flies

Amphicosmus arizonicus Bee Fly - Lordotus - male Hemipenthes 154624 - Hemipenthes Bombyliidae Bee Fly ID - Anastoechus - female Bee Fly - Systoechus Bombyliidae - Villa Fly - Ogcodocera leucoprocta
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Diptera (Flies)
No Taxon (Orthorrhapha)
Superfamily Asiloidea
Family Bombyliidae (Bee Flies)
Explanation of Names
Bombyliidae Latreille 1802
Numbers
ca. 800 spp. in ~70 genera of 13 subfamilies in our area(1), >5,000 spp. in >230 genera of 15 subfamilies worldwide(2)(Yeates & Lambkin 2004)
Overview of our fauna (* –taxa not yet in the guide; classification adapted from(2))
Family BOMBYLIIDAE
Subfamily USIINAE Apolysis
Subfamily PHTHIRIINAE
Subfamily TOXOPHORINAE
Tribe Gerontini Geron (subgenera Empidigeron · Geron)
Subfamily BOMBYLIINAE
Subfamily ANTHRACINAE
Size
body 4-40 mm
Identification
Hairy, often brightly colored flies. Legs usually slender, Wings often have dark markings, held outstretched at rest. Face not hollowed out. Eyes almost touching above, especially in males. Proboscis either short with broad tip, or long and used to take nectar. Hover and dart, rather like syrphid flies. Females sometimes seen hovering over sandy areas, dipping abdomen to oviposit.
Key to e. Canada spp.(3)
Key to e. US spp. here; checklist
Review of world fauna(4)
Range
cosmopolitan; most diverse in semi-arid and arid environments (Yeates & Lambkin 2004)
Habitat
females hover over their host's nest, often in dry areas(5)
Food
larvae are mostly external parasitoids of holometabolous, esp. soil-inhabiting, larvae (Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera), slowly consuming the host completely without making a visible wound; a few are endoparasites, predators (esp. on grasshopper eggs), or kleptoparasites; adults take nectar/pollen(5)(6)(1)
Life Cycle
larvae undergo hypermetamorphosis: 1st instar larva is active and penetrates the host's nest, then turns into a sedentary parasitoid; pupa is equipped with spines/spikes to drill out of the nest(5)
UCR.edu. Immature stages

1 and 2. Pupal shell or exuvia. 3. Pupal shell of host, fly pupal shell and adult.
Remarks
the oldest fossils date ~140 mya(6)
See Also
Syrphidae are not as hairy and never have a long proboscis
Print References
Yeates D.K., Greathead D. (1997) The evolutionary pattern of host use in the Bombyliidae (Diptera): a diverse family of parasitoid flies. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 60: 149–185 (Abstract)
Internet References
Family overview (Yeates & Lambkin 2004)