Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada
Clickable Guide
Moths Butterflies Flies Caterpillars Flies Dragonflies Flies Mantids Cockroaches Bees and Wasps Walkingsticks Earwigs Ants Termites Hoppers and Kin Hoppers and Kin Beetles True Bugs Fleas Grasshoppers and Kin Ticks Spiders Scorpions Centipedes Millipedes

Upcoming Events

Photos of insects and people from the 2022 BugGuide gathering in New Mexico, July 20-24

National Moth Week was July 23-31, 2022! See moth submissions.

Photos of insects and people from the Spring 2021 gathering in Louisiana, April 28-May 2

Photos of insects and people from the 2019 gathering in Louisiana, July 25-27

Photos of insects and people from the 2018 gathering in Virginia, July 27-29

Photos of insects and people from the 2015 gathering in Wisconsin, July 10-12

Previous events


Subfamily Scleroderminae

Cephalonomia sp. - Cephalonomia - female Tiny Wingless Wasp - Sclerodermus - female Tiny Wingless Wasp - Sclerodermus - female Wasp - Cephalonomia waterstoni - female Wasp - Cephalonomia waterstoni - female Biting / Stinging Ant? - Cephalonomia Biting / Stinging Ant? - Cephalonomia small insect - Sclerodermus
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon (Aculeata - Ants, Bees and Stinging Wasps)
Superfamily Chrysidoidea (Cuckoo Wasps and Allies)
Family Bethylidae (Flat Wasps)
Subfamily Scleroderminae
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Sclerodermini Kieffer, 1914
Cephalonomiini Evans, 1964
Kieffer (1914) first defined the tribe Sclerodermini within Bethylinae. Berland (1928) then treated it as the subfamily Scleroderminae. Evans (1964) did not recognize the subfamily and treated it again as a tribe in Epyrinae, until Alencar & Azevedo (2013) raised it again to the rank of subfamily.(1)
Explanation of Names
Scleroderminae Berland, 1928; Alencar & Azevedo, 2013
~213 spp. in 22 genera worldwide(1)
If wings entirely lacking, eyes present with many facets. For winged forms, forewing with Rs+M vein absent; metanotum not developed medially nor overlapping mesoscutellum posteriorly; metasomal segment II not distinctly long; metapectal-propodeal complex not depressed medially, never with posterior spines; body not strongly foveolate; mesopleuron without transepisternal line; forewing of macropterous forms with anterior board angularly incurved; anterior to pterostigma, costal vein usually absent; occipital carina often absent.(1)
Life Cycle
Generally, members of this subfamily parasitize larvae of Coleoptera in cryptic habitats.(1)
Internet References
Alencar, I. D. C. C. and C. O. Azevedo. (2013). Reclassification of Epyrini (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae): a tribal approach with commentary on their genera. Systematic Entomology, Vol. 38, No. 1: 45–80. (Wiley Online Library)
Works Cited
1.Global guide of the flat wasps (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae)
Azevedo C. O., I. D. C. C. Alencar, M. S. Ramos, D. N. Barbosa, W. D. Colombo, J. M. R. Vargas, and J. Lim. 2018. Magnolia Press, Zootaxa.