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Extralimital Graphocephala

Graphocephala is a large and highly complex genus of sharpshooter leafhoppers. It's almost certainly polyphyletic in nature, but—given the close relationship of member species, number of undescribed species, and wide range—a revision will be an extensive and detailed process and is likely pretty far off. Based on recent taxonomy, one genus is accepted as being split from Graphocephala: Amphigonalia. Since the genus is too large to list extralimital examples on the genus info page, I'll list the species here with correctly identified images associated in order to limit some established misinformation. A number of these species may be present in the southwestern U.S. given recent sightings near the border in Mexico. There may be some inaccuracies on this page—it will be regularly updated as new information comes to light. Open to suggestions.

The purpose of this article is to illustrate the high diversity within this 'genus,' collect images that can be used for identification purposes (namely from Sharpshooter Leafhoppers of the World, where having images side-by-side is difficult and links to webpages are not stable) and provide information that will hopefully mitigate the misinformation about identifying species in this genus on numerous online sites. Zoom in on the page to see the pics up close.

Published members of the genus Amphigonalia are not listed here.

Graphocephala alagarta (Young, 1977): Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador
G. alagarta male G. alagarta female

Graphocephala albomaculata (Distant, 1879): Costa Rica, Panama
G. albomaculata male G. albomaculata female G. albomaculata live
© Karl Kroeker

Graphocephala apicata (Young, 1977): Mexico
G. apicata male

Graphocephala appropinquans (Fowler, 1899): Mexico
this species can lack markings on the wings, making it difficult to differentiate from similar species.
G. appropinquans male G. appropinquans female G. appropinquans live
© Coronado Govaerts

Graphocephala aurolineata (Fowler, 1900): Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama
this species has been seen near Texas. it looks remarkably similar to Allogonia luculenta, which occurs in Arizona. the two species are likely sister species belonging to the same genus.
G. aurolineata male G. aurolineata female G. aurolineata live
© Ricardo Arredondo T.

Graphocephala bilimeki (Fowler, 1900): Mexico
morphologically, this species is very out of place, being a prime example of the taxonomic mess of the genus.
G. bilimeki

Graphocephala bivittata (Nielson & Godoy, 1995): Costa Rica
G. bivittata female G. bivittata live
© Ken-ichi Ueda

Graphocephala cervina (Fowler, 1899): Guatemala
G. cervina

Graphocephala clepsydra (Fowler, 1900): Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama
G. clepsydra male G. clepsydra female

Graphocephala consobrina (Fowler, 1899): Mexico, Guatemala
G. consobrina female

Graphocephala coronella (Nielson & Godoy, 1995): Costa Rica
G. coronella male G. coronella live
© Gernot Kunz

Graphocephala crusa (Godoy, 2006): Costa Rica

Graphocephala curta (DeLong & Currie, 1960): Mexico
G. curta male

Graphocephala delongi (Young, 1977): Mexico

Graphocephala depicta (Young, 1977): Mexico
G. depicta male

Graphocephala distanti (Metcalf, 1965): Costa Rica, Panama
easily confused with Tlagonalia nigroguttata which has two spots on the anterior scutellum.
G. distanti male G. distanti live
© Gernot Kunz

Graphocephala dohrni (Signoret, 1855): Mexico
images on NMW show individuals of G. aurora collected in Arizona. therefor, those images are not represented here as they are misattributed. The wing pattern between the two species is very similar, but the markings on the head and pronotum are distinct.
G. dohrni live
© Pancholin Jaime

Graphocephala edwardsii (Signoret, 1855): Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica
this distinct species is highly variable. photos only represent some colour forms.
G. edwardsii male G. edwardsii female G. edwardsii live
© Ricardo Arredondo T.

Graphocephala flavovittata (Metcalf, 1955): Mexico, Panama
in the Hordnia 'species group' — a sister species of G. atropunctata.
G. flavovittata male G. flavovittata female G. flavovittata live
© Terranauta

Graphocephala gemmella (DeLong & Currie, 1960): Mexico
G. gemmella female

Graphocephala guerreroensis (Fowler, 1899): Mexico
G. guerreroensis male G. guerreroensis female

Graphocephala ignobilis (Fowler, 1899): Mexico
G. ignobilis male G. ignobilis female

Graphocephala innervis (Fowler, 1900): Mexico
this species morphologically seems to be a member of Amphigonalia, but was not included in the revision, which mostly focused on the U.S. species.
G. innervis male G. innervis female G. innervis live
© Ricardo Arredondo T.

Graphocephala janzeni (Nielson & Godoy, 1995): Costa Rica
G. janzeni female

Graphocephala kukla (Young, 1977): El Salvador
very similar in appearance to G. crusa, which is more slender.
G. kukla male

Graphocephala lemniscata (Fowler, 1900): Mexico
G. lemniscata male

Graphocephala lucasii (Signoret, 1855): Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador
G. lucasii male G. lucasii female G. lucasii live
© Paola Hernandez

Graphocephala lurida (DeLong & Currie, 1959): Mexico

Graphocephala nigricephala (Nielson & Godoy, 1995): Costa Rica

Graphocephala nigrifascia (Walker, F., 1851): Mexico, Colombia
though this is a variable species, numerous images on the NMW site are mislabeled. this species can be nearly identical to G. marathonensis.
G. nigrifascia male G. nigrifascia female G. nigrifascia live
© Joel Galván

Graphocephala pectoralis (Fowler, 1900): Mexico
G. pectoralis female

Graphocephala penignava (Young, 1977): Mexico
G. penignava male

Graphocephala permagna (Nielson & Godoy, 1995): Costa Rica

Graphocephala psephena (Young, 1977): Mexico, Guatemala
this species resembles members of the genus Manzutus.
G. psephena female G. psephena live
© troi_olivares

Graphocephala pulchra (Young, 1977): Mexico
colouration of this species is variable, similar to edwardsii.
G. pulchra female G. pulchra live
© Ricardo Arredondo T.

Graphocephala pumicata (Fowler, 1899): Panama
G. pumicata female

Graphocephala punctulata (Signoret, 1853): Mexico
this species greatly resembles members of Apogonalia, notably A. krameri. it is likely a member of that (also possibly paraphyletic) genus. while the wing pattern is nearly the same as A. krameri, the pattern of spots on the head/pronotum and the pattern on the scutellum are distinctive.
G. punctulata male G. punctulata male G. punctulata live
© Ricardo Arredondo T.

Graphocephala redacta (Fowler, 1900): Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, French Guiana
images on NMW are conflicting, making certainty of what this species looks like difficult.

Graphocephala riverae (Godoy & Villalobos, 2006): Costa Rica

Graphocephala rufimargo (Walker, F., 1858): Mexico, Honduras, Belize, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama
G. rufimargo female G. rufimargo live
© Eduardo Axel Recillas Bautista

Graphocephala sasaima (Young, 1977): Colombia
note markings on head. one of the few members of the genus in South America.
G. sasaima male G. sasaima female

Graphocephala simulata (Young, 1977): Mexico
G. simulata male

Graphocephala soluna (Young, 1977): Panama
G. soluna live
© Gernot Kunz

Graphocephala spinosa (DeLong & Currie, 1960): Mexico
this species morphologically seems to be a member of Amphigonalia, but was not included in the revision, which mostly focused on the U.S. species.
G. spinosa male G. spinosa female

Graphocephala teres (Fowler, 1900): Mexico
G. teres male G. teres female

Graphocephala torqua (DeLong & Currie, 1960): Mexico
G. torqua male G. torqua female

undescribed/unknown species

Graphocephala nr. atropunctata: Mexico
this species is labeled around the internet as G. atropunctata, but it is morphologically distinct—possibly a recent example of speciation. this may just be an extreme form of atropunctata based on climate or genetic isolation, but I believe it may be undescribed. the markings on the head are distinct. specimens are needed to confirm.
G. cf. atropunctata male G. cf. atropunctata live
© Alfredo Eloisa

Graphocephala coccinea idonea 1: Mexico, Central America
listed as a synonym of G. coccinea, this 'subspecies' is likely a complex of similar undescribed species. the colouration of this group within the idonea 'subspecies' is distinct. "I think idonea is likely distinct." - J. Kits pers. comments. this is what I would call true idonea.
G. idonea G. idonea live G. idonea live
© John Garrett, © Belén Jiménez Tutor

Graphocephala coccinea idonea 2: Mexico, Central America
another possibly distinct species listed under G. coccinea idonea. it is geographically isolated from G. coccinea/constricta and has slight morphological differences. this species may instead be a true subspecies of coccinea.
G. idonea live G. idonea live
© van_ , © carlosss

Graphocephala coccinea idonea 3: Costa Rica
either variation or a distinct species. the broken line markings on the wings are symmetrical.
G. idonea live
© Arthur de Jesús

• unknown Graphocephala: Costa Rica
the images of this species are unassociated with a known taxon. it has however been confirmed to be a Graphocephala (default image on Dmitriev's 3i).
Graphocephala live
© Gernot Kunz

• unknown Graphocephala nr. : Costa Rica