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Subfamily Macrocentrinae

Braconid - Macrocentrus - male Small Braconid female - Macrocentrus - female Wasp - Macrocentrus - male Black-headed orange wasp - Macrocentrus Braconid? - female Braconidae - Hymenochaonia - male Braconidae? - Macrocentrus Dusona? - Macrocentrus
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" (parasitic Apocrita))
Superfamily Ichneumonoidea (Braconids and Ichneumons)
Family Braconidae (Braconid Wasps)
Subfamily Macrocentrinae
mack row sen TRINE ee
All 4 genera occur in North America, although Macrocentrus and Hymenochaonia are the dominant groups in the New World. Hymenochaonia is mostly Neotropical. (Wharton, R.A. 1997. Subfamily Macrocentrinae. In:[1018556])
large; most larger than 5 mm.
Ovipositor of females as long or longer than metasoma in some (genera Hymenochaonia, Macrocentrus); in others, short (Dolichozele, Austrazele).
Peg-like teeth on trochantellas of legs, including middle legs and hind legs.
Laterope absent or very shallow in Hymenochaonia, Dolichozele, large and deep in Macrocentrus and Austrozele. (Wharton 1997(1))
World wide. Macrocentrus is dominant in temperate North America. (Wharton 1997.(1))
Larvae are parasitic on Lepidoptera larvae.
Life Cycle
Solitary or gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoids. Where known, gregarious species are polyembryonic, as are others. For example, in M. ancylivorus: although only 1 individual of this species emerges from its host, initial development is polyembryonic. (Wharton 1997.(1).
Many species are pale in color, and crepuscular or nocturnal.
Print References
For biological information, see:
Clausen, C.P. 1940. Entomophagous Insects. McGraw-Hill, New York and London. 688 pp.
Shaw, M.R. and T. Huddleston. 1991. Classification and biology of braconid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 7(11): 1-126.
Daniel, D.M. 1932. Macrocentrus ancylivorus Rohwer, a polyembryonic braconid parasite of the Oriental fruit moth. New York State Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 187: 1-101.
Ding, D., P.D. Swedenborg, and R.L. Jones. 1989. Chemical stimuli in host-seeking behavior of Macrocentrus grandii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Annals of the Entomological Society of America 82:232-236.
Works Cited
1.Manual of the New World Genera of the Family Braconidae (Hymenoptera)
Wharton, R.A., P.M. Marsh, M.J. Sharkey (Eds). 1997. International Society of Hymenopterists.