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Family Heliozelidae - Shield Bearer Moths

leafminer/cutter - Antispila cf-isabella moths - Heliozela aesella - male - female Heliozelidae, Shield Bearer Moth - Antispila Antispila ampelopsifoliella - Aspilanta ampelopsifoliella Leigh Farm Park leaf miner on Ostrya virginiana D454 2017 1 - Coptodisca ostryaefoliella St. Andrews leaf miner on Carya tomentosa SA1768 parasitoid 2020 1.1 - Coptodisca lucifluella St. Andrews leaf miner on Vaccinium fuscatum SA1801 2020 2.1 - Coptodisca Coptodisca juglandiella leaf damage - Coptodisca juglandiella
Show images of: caterpillars · adults · both
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)
Superfamily Adeloidea (Fairy Moths and kin)
Family Heliozelidae (Shield Bearer Moths)
Numbers
30 species in 3 genera in North America listed in Pohl, et al. 2016 provisional checklist(1)
Size
Less than 3 mm. (2)
Identification
Adult - typically have iridescent, metallic-appearing scaling. Eyes are small as in other diurnal microlepidoptera. (2)
Larva - flattened, usually legless. (2)
Food
Species are host specific, using at least 17 families of angiosperms. (2)
Life Cycle
Last instar larvae construct a portable case by cutting disks from the upper and lower epidermis and joining them with silk, the reason for the commom name "shield bearers." The abandoned mines, with their distinctive "shot holes" are characteristic. (2)
Works Cited
1.Annotated taxonomic checklist of the Lepidoptera of North America, North of Mexico
Pohl, G.R., Patterson, B., & Pelham, J.P. 2016. ResearchGate.net.
2.Moths of Western North America
Powell and Opler. 2009. UC Press.