Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
First described in 1866 by Franz Anton Menge
Explanation of Names
The scientific name is from the genus Tetragnatha
The common name is due to the extended length of the chelicerae
(jaws) compared to those of other orb weavers (Araneidae).
Compare a long-jawed orb weaver:
to a normal orb weaver (NOTE
: the black portion in front of the face is the jaws. The small leg-like appendages in front of the face are not jaws, but rather pedipalps
Exact distribution within these countries will be added when time permits.
9 genera (ranges given are only for the area covered by BugGuide):
Azilia - 1 species in the USA
affinis - USA
Dolichognatha - 1 species in the USA/Canada.
pentagona - USA
- 4 species in the USA/Canada.
emertoni - USA
heleios - USA
iviei - USA
- 2 species in the USA/Canada.
- 2 species in the USA/Canada. (Cave Orb Weavers)
- 3 species in the USA/Canada.
- Canada (Introduced- may include USA as well)
Metleucauge - 1 species in the USA.
eldorado - USA
- 8 species in the USA/Canada.
calusa - USA
clercki - Holarctic
dorothea - USA, Canada
furcillata - USA
xanthostoma - USA, Canada
14 species, 3 subspecies in the USA/Canada.
branda - USA
dearmata - Holarctic
elongata debilis - USA
elongata principalis - USA
elongata undulata - USA
gracilis - USA
- USA, Canada
pallescens - USA, Canada
shoshone - USA, Canada
vermiformis - USA, Canada
Not diagnostic, but some helpful features:(1)
Legs often long, with leg I the longest.
Chelicerae (jaws) often enlarged in males.
8 eyes in 2 rows
The long-jawed orb-weaver webs are orb-shaped (concentric circles, with 12-20 spokes(2)
radiating from the center to anchor points (such as tree branches)). The angle of the web is typically somewhere between vertical and horizontal.
They vary in appearance, but those most commonly found are long-legged, thin-bodied spiders. When at rest, they may cling lengthwise along a twig or blade of grass, holding on with the short third pair of legs. The long pairs of legs are extended.
Then there is the Orchard Spider
Throughout the United States and Southern Canada.
Members of the genus Tetragnatha typically live in meadows near water, and around the banks of waterways (rivers, lakes, swamps), usually on low-hanging branches and reeds.
The orchard spider (Leucauge venusta) is found throughout the woods of the Eastern US.
These spiders will bite if threatened, but the bite is not harmful to people. It is recommended that they not be picked up, but rather observed in their natural environment (e.g. - on their web).
- Sheetweb and Dwarf Spiders
- Cobweb Spiders
Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Danzig, v.1,nos. 3-4,Preussichen Spinnen, p.90 (Original Description
) Menge's original description of the family (in German)