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Family Theridiidae - Cobweb Spiders

FL brown widow - Latrodectus geometricus Small Spider  - Nesticodes rufipes spider - Steatoda - male Pair of Enoplognatha ovata? - Enoplognatha ovata - male Theridion glaucescens - female spider Male Enoplognatha ovata - Enoplognatha ovata - male Steatoda_hespera possibly in garage at Draper, Utah October 15, 2018 - Steatoda - male
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Chelicerata (Chelicerates)
Class Arachnida (Arachnids)
Order Araneae (Spiders)
Infraorder Araneomorphae (True Spiders)
No Taxon (Entelegynae)
Family Theridiidae (Cobweb Spiders)
Other Common Names
Comb-Footed Spiders
This section is currently under construction.

These counts should be considered estimates as they are subject to to change with revisions and the addition of newly described species. See the World Spider Catalog for current information.

(Number of species in our range; North America north of Mexico.) of (Total number of species.)

Argyrodes Simon, 1864 — 3 of 98(1)
Dipoena Thorell, 1869 — 15 of 164(1)
Episinus Walckenaer, in Latreille, 1809 — 1 of 65 plus 1 subspecies(1)
Euryopis Menge, 1868 — 18 of 80(1)
Lasaeola Simon, 1881 — 2 of 25 plus one sub-species
Ohlertidion Wunderlich, 2008 —
Paratheridula Levi, 1957 —
Pholcomma Thorell, 1869 —
Phycosoma O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1880 —
Styposis Simon, 1894 —
Tekellina Levi, 1957 —
Theonoe Simon, 1881 —

In separating Theridiidae from Linyphiidae (2)
1. Legs
    Theridiidae have first legs usually longest, third legs shortest. Also fourth legs usually with comb macrosetae (indistinct in Dipoena & Euryopis). Legs have no thick setae and no femoral macrosetae.
    Linyphiidae have legs long & thin with macrosetae. (Hairs on males somewhat reduced.) They have long sensory hairs on the first three legs, sometimes on all four legs.

2. Abdomen
    Theridiidae have abdomen usually round, rarely elongate.
    Linyphiidae abdomen usually oval or elongated.
This section is currently under construction.

Anelosimus analyticus — USA, Mexico(1); "Recorded from south-west USA to Venezuela, most records from Mexico"(3)
Anelosimus arizona — USA, Mexico(1);"Only known from Arizona, USA, and Mexico"(3)
Anelosimus studiosus — USA to Argentina(1); "USA to Argentina. Widespread and common over a large portion of the Americas"(3)

Argyrodes elevatus — USA to Argentina, Galapagos Is.(1);
Argyrodes nephilae — USA, Caribbean to Argentina, Galapagos Is. Introduced to India(1);
Argyrodes pluto — USA, Mexico, Jamaica(1);

Asagena americana — Canada, USA, Mexico, China(1);
Asagena fulva — USA, Mexico(1);
Asagena medialis — USA, Mexico(1);
Asagena pulcher — USA(1);

Canalidion montanum — North America, Scandinavia, Russia (Europe to Far East)

Chrosiothes chirica — USA, Mexico(1)
Chrosiothes iviei — USA(1)
Chrosiothes jocosus — USA, Mexico(1)
Chrosiothes minusculus — USA, Mexico(1)
Chrosiothes portalensis — USA, Mexico(1)
Chrosiothes silvaticus — USA to Ecuador(1)

Chrysso albomaculata — USA, Mexico to Brazil, Caribbean(1)
Chrysso nordica — France, Hungary, Ukraine, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, Mongolia, North America(1)
Chrysso pelyx — USA(1)

Coleosoma acutiventer — USA to Argentina(1)
Coleosoma floridanum — North, Central and South America. Introduced to Europe, Macaronesia, West Africa, Seychelles, India, Sri Lanka, Philippines, China, Japan, Pacific Is.(1)
Coleosoma normale — USA to Brazil(1)

Crustulina altera — USA(1)
Crustulina sticta — North America, Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia, China, Korea, Japan(1)

Cryptachaea ambera — USA(1)
Cryptachaea blattea — Africa. Introduced to USA, Chile, Azores, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii(1)
Cryptachaea canionis — USA(1)
Cryptachaea chiricahua — USA(1)
Cryptachaea fresno — USA(1)
Cryptachaea insulsa — USA, Mexico(1)
Cryptachaea porteri — USA to Panama, Caribbean(1)
Cryptachaea rupicola — USA, Canada(1)
Cryptachaea serenoae — USA(1)

Dipoena abdita — USA, Mexico, Caribbean(1)
Dipoena appalachia — USA, Canada(1)
Dipoena bernardino — USA(1)
Dipoena buccalis — North America(1)
Dipoena cathedralis — China, USA(1)
Dipoena chathami — USA(1)
Dipoena dorsata — USA to Paraguay(1)
Dipoena lana — USA, Panama(1)
Dipoena malkini — USA(1)
Dipoena neotoma — USA(1)
Dipoena nigra — USA, Canada, Mexico(1)
Dipoena provalis — USA(1)
Dipoena rita — USA(1)
Dipoena sulfurica — USA, Mexico(1)
Dipoena washougalia — USA(1)

Emertonella emertoni — USA, Mexico
Emertonella taczanowskii — USA to Argentina. Introduced to India, Sri Lanka, China, Japan (Ryukyu Is.), New Guinea

Enoplognatha intrepida — USA, Canada, Greenland, Korea
Enoplognatha joshua — USA
Enoplognatha latimana — Europe, North Africa, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe) to Central Asia, Iran. Introduced to Canada
Enoplognatha maricopa — USA
Enoplognatha marmorata — North America
Enoplognatha ovata — Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Middle Siberia), Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia, Japan. Introduced to North America
Enoplognatha selma — USA
Enoplognatha thoracica — Europe, Turkey, North Africa, Syria, Iran, Turkmenistan. Introduced to North America
Enoplognatha wyuta — USA

Episinus amoenus — USA, Mexico

Euryopis argentea — USA, Canada, Russia (Kamchatka)
Euryopis californica — USA, Mexico
Euryopis coki — USA
Euryopis formosa — USA, Canada
Euryopis funebris — USA, Canada
Euryopis gertschi — USA, Canada
Euryopis lineatipes — USA to Colombia
Euryopis mulaiki — USA, Mexico
Euryopis pepini — USA
Euryopis quinquemaculata — USA
Euryopis saukea — North America, Europe, Russia (Europe to Far East), Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan
Euryopis scriptipes — USA, Mexico
Euryopis spinigera — USA to Colombia
Euryopis spiritus — USA
Euryopis tavara — USA
Euryopis texana — USA, Mexico
Euryopis varis — USA
Euryopis weesei — USA

Faiditus americanus — USA to Brazil, Argentina
Faiditus cancellatus — USA, Canada, Bahama Is.
Faiditus caudatus — USA, Caribbean to Argentina
Faiditus davisi — USA, Mexico
Faiditus dracus — USA to Paraguay
Faiditus globosus — USA to Ecuador
Faiditus maculosus — USA, Mexico
Faiditus subdolus — USA to Guatemala

Hentziectypus conjunctus — USA, Canada
Hentziectypus florendidus — USA to Venezuela
Hentziectypus florens — USA to Panama, Cuba
Hentziectypus globosus — North America
Hentziectypus schullei — USA, Mexico

Lasaeola atopa — USA; UT(4)
Lasaeola prona — North America, Europe, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to South Siberia), Kazakhstan, Iran, Japan; "found in all parts of the United States, though very rarely."(4)

Latrodectus bishopi — USA
Latrodectus geometricus — Africa. Introduced to both Americas, Poland, Middle East, Pakistan, India, Thailand, Japan, China, Papua New Guinea, Australia, Hawaii
Latrodectus hesperus — Canada, USA, Mexico. Introduced to Israel, Korea
Latrodectus mactans — Probably native to North America only. Introduced to South America, Asia
Latrodectus variolus — USA, Canada

Meotipa pulcherrima — Tropical Africa. Introduced to the Americas, Papua New Guinea, China, Korea, Japan, Pacific Is.

Neopisinus cognatus — USA to Peru, Brazil

Neospintharus baboquivari — USA, Mexico
Neospintharus furcatus — USA to El Salvador, Caribbean
Neospintharus trigonum — USA, Canada

Neottiura bimaculata — North America, Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia, China, Japan

Nesticodes rufipes — Central and South America. Introduced to Europe, Macaronesia, North Africa, Middle East, China, Japan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, New Zealand, Pacific Is.

Ohlertidion ohlerti — North America, Europe, Russia (Europe to Far East)(1)

Parasteatoda tabulata — Tropical Asia. Introduced to North America, Europe, Georgia, Russia (Europe to Far East), Central Asia, China, Korea, Japan
Parasteatoda tepidariorum — South America. Introduced to Canada, USA, Seychelles, Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia, China, Japan, New Zealand, Hawaii

Paratheridula perniciosa — USA to Chile

Pholcomma barnesi — USA
Pholcomma carota — USA
Pholcomma hirsutum — USA, Canada

Phoroncidia americana — USA, Canada, Cuba, Jamaica

Phycosoma lineatipes — USA to Brazil

Phylloneta impressa — North America, Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia, China, India
Phylloneta pictipes — USA

Platnickina alabamensis — USA, Canada
Platnickina antoni — USA
Platnickina punctosparsa — USA
Platnickina tincta — Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to South Siberia), Kazakhstan, Iran. Introduced to North America

Rhomphaea fictilium — Canada to Argentina
Rhomphaea projiciens — USA to Argentina. Introduced to India

Robertus arcticus — USA (Alaska)
Robertus banksi — USA, Canada
Robertus borealis — USA, Canada
Robertus crosbyi — USA, Canada
Robertus eremophilus — USA
Robertus floridensis — USA
Robertus frontatus — USA, Canada
Robertus fuscus — USA, Canada, Greenland
Robertus laticeps — USA
Robertus lividus — USA (Alaska), Europe, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Iran
Robertus longipalpus — USA, Canada
Robertus lyrifer — Iceland, Scandinavia, Austria, Russia (Europe to Far East), Canada
Robertus pumilus — USA
Robertus riparius — USA, Canada
Robertus similis — USA
Robertus spinifer — USA
Robertus vigerens — USA, Canada

Rugathodes aurantius — North America, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan
Rugathodes sexpunctatus — USA, Canada, Russia (Commander Is.). Introduced to Britain

Simitidion simile — Europe, North Africa, Turkey, Israel, Caucasus, Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia. Introduced to Canada

Spintharus flavidus — USA; Central and South America

Steatoda alamosa — USA, Mexico
Steatoda albomaculata — North America, Europe, North Africa to Israel, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia, China, Korea, Japan
Steatoda apacheana — USA
Steatoda atascadera — USA
Steatoda bipunctata — Europe, North Africa, Turkey, Israel, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia, China. Introduced to Canada, South America
Steatoda borealis — USA, Canada
Steatoda castanea — Europe, Turkey, Russia (Europe to Far East), Caucasus, Iran, Central Asia, China. Introduced to Canada
Steatoda erigoniformis — East Mediterranean, Middle East, Caucasus, China, Korea, Japan. Introduced to USA, Caribbean, Venezuela
Steatoda grandis — USA
Steatoda grossa — Europe, Turkey, Russia (Europe to Far East), Caucasus, Central Asia, China, Korea, Japan. Introduced to North and South America, Macaronesia, Africa, New Zealand, Hawaii
Steatoda hespera — USA, Canada
Steatoda mexicana — USA, Mexico
Steatoda nobilis — Macaronesia. Introduced to USA, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia, Europe, Turkey, Iran
Steatoda palomara — USA
Steatoda punctulata — USA, Mexico
Steatoda quadrimaculata — USA to Venezuela, Caribbean
Steatoda transversa — USA, Mexico
Steatoda triangulosa — Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia. Introduced to Canada, USA, Canary Is.
Steatoda variata — USA, Mexico
Steatoda variata china — USA, Mexico
Steatoda washona — USA, Mexico

Stemmops bicolor — USA to Panama, Cuba, Bahama Is.
Stemmops ornatus — USA

Styposis ajo — USA
Styposis clausis — USA to Colombia

Tekellina archboldi — USA

Theonoe stridula — USA, Canada

Theridion aeolium — USA(1)
Theridion agrifoliae — USA, Canada(1)
Theridion albidum — USA,— Canada(1)
Theridion arizonense — USA(1)
Theridion australe — USA, Mexico, Caribbean(1)
Theridion californicum — USA, Canada(1)
Theridion cameronense — USA, Mexico(1)
Theridion cheimatos — USA(1)
Theridion cinctipes — USA, Mexico(1)
Theridion cochise — USA(1)
Theridion cowlesae — USA(1)
Theridion cynicum — USA, Mexico(1)
Theridion differens — USA, Canada(1)
Theridion dilutum — USA, Mexico(1)
Theridion dividuum — USA(1)
Theridion dulcineum — USA(1)
Theridion ellicottense — USA(1)
Theridion flavonotatum — USA, Cuba(1)
Theridion frondeum — USA, Bahama Is.(1)
Theridion geminipunctum — USA, Mexico(1)
Theridion gertschi — USA, Mexico(1)
Theridion glaucescens — USA, Canada(1)
Theridion goodnightorum — USA, Mexico(1)
Theridion hemerobium — USA, Canada, Europe, Turkey, Israel, Iran(1)
Theridion hidalgo — USA, Mexico(1)
Theridion intritum — USA(1)
Theridion istokpoga — USA to Panama(1)
Theridion kawea — USA, Mexico(1)
Theridion lawrencei — USA(1)
Theridion leechi — USA, Canada(1)
Theridion leviorum— USA(1)
Theridion llano — USA(1)
Theridion logan — USA(1)
Theridion melanostictum — Macaronesia, Mediterranean to Egypt, India, Central Asia, China, Japan. Introduced to Poland, Canada, USA, Galapagos Is., Society Is.(1)
Theridion melanurum — Macaronesia, North Africa, Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Middle Siberia), Middle East. Introduced to USA.(1)
Theridion michelbacheri — USA(1)
Theridion morulum — USA, Mexico(1)
Theridion murarium — North America(1)
Theridion myersi — USA, Mexico, Jamaica. Introduced to Galapagos Is.(1)
Theridion neomexicanum — USA, Canada(1)
Theridion neshamini — USA(1)
Theridion orlando — USA(1)
Theridion pennsylvanicum — USA, Canada(1)
Theridion petraeum — North America, Europe, North Africa, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan(1)
Theridion pictum — North America, Europe, North Africa, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, Turkemenistan, China, Japan
Theridion pierre — USA(1)
Theridion positivum — USA, Caribbean to Paraguay(1)
Theridion punctipes — USA, Mexico(1)
Theridion rabuni — USA, Bahama Is.(1)
Theridion saanichum — USA, Canada(1)
Theridion sardis — USA
Theridion submissum — USA, Mexico, Bahama Is., Jamaica(1)
Theridion timpanogos — USA(1)
Theridion transgressum — USA, Mexico(1)
Theridion varians — Europe, North Africa, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia (Europe to Far East), Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia, China. Introduced to Canada, USA(1)
Theridion yuma — USA(1)

Theridula Emerton, 1882
Theridula emertoni — USA, Canada
Theridula opulenta — North America. Introduced to southern Europe, India

Thymoites camano — USA
Thymoites expulsus — USA, Mexico, Cuba, Jamaica
Thymoites illudens — USA to Colombia
Thymoites maderae — USA to Panama
Thymoites marxi — USA, Mexico
Thymoites minero — USA
Thymoites minnesota — USA, Canada
Thymoites missionensis — USA to Costa Rica
Thymoites oleatus — Canada, Greenland, Russia (Europe to Far East)
Thymoites pallidus — USA, Caribbean to Venezuela
Thymoites pictipes — USA
Thymoites sarasota — USA
Thymoites sclerotis — USA, Mexico
Thymoites unimaculatus — USA, Canada

Tidarren haemorrhoidale — USA to Argentina
Tidarren sisyphoides — USA to Argentina, Caribbean

Wamba congener — USA, Caribbean to Argentina
Wamba crispulus — Canada to Brazil, Caribbean

Yunohamella lyrica — North America, Korea, Japan
family may not be a monophyletic group
genera Achaearanea, Anelosimus, and Theridion are known to contain subsocial species, but the only social spiders in our area are in the genus Anelosimus

Spiders with very small (if strong) jaws (such as crab spiders and cobweb weavers) make small holes in the prey and vomit their digestive fluid into the prey's body, the end result being a hollow shell with some or most of the muscles and internal organs digested and sucked out. (5)
Print References
Levi 1957(6)
Vanuytven, H. (2021). The Theridiidae of the World. A key to the genera with their diagnosis and a study of the body length of all known species. Newsletter of the Belgian arachnological Society, 35, 1-363.
Internet References
World Spider Catalog (2021). World Spider Catalog. Version 22.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at, accessed on September 27, 2021.
Works Cited
1.World Spider Catalog
2.Spiders of North America: An Identification Manual
D. Ubick, P. Paquin, P.E. Cushing and V. Roth (eds). 2005. American Arachnological Society.
3.A revision of the New World eximius lineage of Anelosimus
Agnarsson, I. . 2006. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 146(4): 453-593.
4.Spiders of the genus Dipoena from America north of Mexico (Araneae, Theridiidae)
H.W. Levi. 1953. American Museum Novitates, No. 1647, 1-39.
5.The Spider Myths Site
6.The spider genera Enoplognatha, Theridion, and Paidisca in America north of Mexico (Araneae, Theridiidae)
H.W. Levi. 1957. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 112, article 1, 123 p.