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Subfamily Opiinae

Braconid ex Elephantopus-mining agromyzid - female Braconid ex Liriomyza ex Baccharis halimifolia Braconidae, thorax Braconid ex agromyzid ex Solidago rugosa - female Braconid Small wasp emerged from dodder gall  - Opius - female Small pale-legged wasp Braconid?
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" (parasitic Apocrita))
Superfamily Ichneumonoidea (Braconids and Ichneumons)
Family Braconidae (Braconid Wasps)
Subfamily Opiinae
oh pee EYE nee
About 2000 species world wide (Peris-Felipo et al. 2012(1))
small, mostly 1.5 - 4 mm.
Similar to Alysiinae, but with normal (inwardly pointing) mandibles. Compare with Alysiinae:


This is a hard group to nail down with good uniquely distinguishing characters. In many, there is a gap between the clypeus (above) and mandibles (below) when they are closed that looks similar to the mouth of cyclostome braconids (like Braconinae, Doryctinae, Hormiinae, and Rogadinae). However, the shape of the clypeus is different from that of of cyclostomes. Also, the labrum, inside of the "mouth," is flat, and not concave, such as in cyclostomes. In some opiine species, the r vein originates close to the base of the stigma and the marginal cell is very large, as in many Alysiinae.
Larvae feed on larvae of various cyclorrhapous Diptera (flies), especially those in families Agromyzidae and Tephritidae.
Only about 14% of opine species have associated host records world-wide, and just 29% in North America (Wharton 1997. Subfamily Opiinae. In:(2)). They have been an important biocontrol group, especially for fruit-infesting Tephritidae and leaf-mining agromyzidae. (Wharton 1997 in (2) Opius is by far the most biodiverse genus. Other smaller opiine genera are more host-specific. For example, Ademon Haliday all attack Ephydridae, and Biosteres as defined by Wharton (1988) almost exclusively attack Anthomyiidae and plant infesting Scathophagidae (Wharton 1997 in (2)).
Print References
Fischer, M. 1972. Hymenoptera: Braconidae (Opiinae I). Das Tierreich 91: 1-620.
Fischer, M. 1977. Hymenoptera: Braconidae (Opiinae II-Amerika) Das Tierreich 96: 1-1001
Works Cited
1.Genus Indiopius Fischer, 1966 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) in Iran with a key to the world species.
Peris-Felipo, F.J., Z. Rahmani, S.A. Belokobilskij, E. Rakhshani. 2014. Zookeys 368: 37-44.
2.Manual of the New World Genera of the Family Braconidae (Hymenoptera)
Wharton, R.A., P.M. Marsh, M.J. Sharkey (Eds). 1997. International Society of Hymenopterists.