Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada
Clickable Guide
Moths Butterflies Flies Caterpillars Flies Dragonflies Flies Mantids Cockroaches Bees and Wasps Walkingsticks Earwigs Ants Termites Hoppers and Kin Hoppers and Kin Beetles True Bugs Fleas Grasshoppers and Kin Ticks Spiders Scorpions Centipedes Millipedes

Upcoming Events

Photos of insects and people from the 2022 BugGuide gathering in New Mexico, July 20-24

National Moth Week was July 23-31, 2022! See moth submissions.

Photos of insects and people from the Spring 2021 gathering in Louisiana, April 28-May 2

Photos of insects and people from the 2019 gathering in Louisiana, July 25-27

Photos of insects and people from the 2018 gathering in Virginia, July 27-29

Photos of insects and people from the 2015 gathering in Wisconsin, July 10-12

Previous events


Subfamily Opiinae

parasitic wasp Braconid ex aspen-mining agromyzid Braconid ex Phytomyza ex Ilex verticillata - female Braconid ex Chirosia ex sensitive fern - female Wasp IMG_9256 - Opius Braconid ex Parallelomma vittatum - Opius - female Small wasp emerged from dodder gall  - Opius - female Opius
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" - Parasitoid Wasps)
Superfamily Ichneumonoidea (Braconid and Ichneumonid Wasps)
Family Braconidae (Braconid Wasps)
Subfamily Opiinae
oh pee EYE nee
About 2000 species world wide (Peris-Felipo et al. 2012(1))
small, mostly 1.5 - 4 mm.
Similar to Alysiinae, but with normal (inwardly pointing) mandibles. Compare with Alysiinae:


This is a hard group to nail down with good uniquely distinguishing characters. In many, there is a gap between the clypeus (above) and mandibles (below) when they are closed that looks similar to the mouth of cyclostome braconids (like Braconinae, Doryctinae, Hormiinae, and Rogadinae). However, the shape of the clypeus is different from that of of cyclostomes. Also, the labrum, inside of the "mouth," is flat, and not concave, such as in cyclostomes. In some opiine species, the r vein originates close to the base of the stigma and the marginal cell is very large, as in many Alysiinae.
Larvae feed on larvae of various cyclorrhapous Diptera (flies), especially those in families Agromyzidae and Tephritidae.
Only about 14% of opine species have associated host records world-wide, and just 29% in North America (Wharton 1997. Subfamily Opiinae. In:(2)). They have been an important biocontrol group, especially for fruit-infesting Tephritidae and leaf-mining agromyzidae. (Wharton 1997 in (2) Opius is by far the most biodiverse genus. Other smaller opiine genera are more host-specific. For example, Ademon Haliday all attack Ephydridae, and Biosteres as defined by Wharton (1988) almost exclusively attack Anthomyiidae and plant infesting Scathophagidae (Wharton 1997 in (2)).
Print References
Fischer, M. 1972. Hymenoptera: Braconidae (Opiinae I). Das Tierreich 91: 1-620.
Fischer, M. 1977. Hymenoptera: Braconidae (Opiinae II-Amerika) Das Tierreich 96: 1-1001
Works Cited
1.Genus Indiopius Fischer, 1966 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) in Iran with a key to the world species.
Peris-Felipo, F.J., Z. Rahmani, S.A. Belokobilskij, E. Rakhshani. 2014. Zookeys 368: 37-44.
2.Manual of the New World Genera of the Family Braconidae (Hymenoptera)
Wharton, R.A., P.M. Marsh, M.J. Sharkey (Eds). 1997. International Society of Hymenopterists.