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Genus Andrena

Digging bee for ID - Andrena dunningi Mining Bee (Andrena nuda) - Andrena nuda - female 8014693 Bombus - Andrena carlini - female Bee - Bradley's Andrena?  - Andrena bradleyi - female bee on desert olive - Andrena impolita Female bees combing Mayapple leaves - Andrena - female mining bee on wild geranium - Andrena Andrena nubecula
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon (Aculeata - Ants, Bees and Stinging Wasps)
No Taxon (Apoidea (clade Anthophila) - Bees)
Family Andrenidae (Miner, Fairy, Allied Panurgine, and Oxaeine Bees)
Subfamily Andreninae (Mining Bees)
Genus Andrena
Other Common Names
Mining Bees
Explanation of Names
Andrena Fabricius 1775
From Greek anthrene (ανθρηνη) 'hornet/wasp'; related Greek words originally referred to any buzzing insect(1)
Numbers
>450 spp. in 47 subgenera in our area, >1,500 spp. in 100 subgenera worldwide(2)
Subgenera not yet in the guide:
Anchandrena LaBerge 1986: 2 spp., both in our area(2)
Aporandrena Lanham 1949: monotypic subgenus(2)
Augandrena LaBerge 1986: 3 spp., all in our area(2)
Cremnandrena LaBerge 1986: monotypic subgenus(2)
Dasyandrena LaBerge 1974: 3 spp., all in our area(2)
Geissandrena LaBerge & Ribble 1972: monotypic subgenus(2)
Nemandrena LaBerge 1971: 3 spp., all in our area(2)
Notandrena Pérez 1890: 2 spp. in our area, 20 spp. total(2)
Oxyandrena: monotypic subgenus(2)
Pelicandrena LaBerge 1977: monotypic subgenus(2)
Psammandrena LaBerge 1977: 2 spp., both in our area(2)
Scaphandrena Timberlake 1949: 24 spp., all in our area(2)
Size
females 8–17 mm, males smaller
Identification
They have facial foveae. This describes the pale bands of hair along the inside margins of the eyes. Actually, the facial foveae are the 'grooves' in the face from which those hairs emanate. Wings with 3 submarginal cells.

OVERVIEW OF SUBGENERA
   


   
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Range
Mostly northern hemisphere; absent from South America and Australia (map)(2)
Season
Most species fly in spring, but others fly in the summer, autumn, and a few even in winter
Life Cycle
Overwintered adults emerge in the spring, males slightly before females, mating occurs shortly thereafter. After mating, females begin constructing their nests - a vertical tunnel lined with a shiny water-proof secretion and side cells.
Males of many spp. (e.g. A. imitatrix) fly in large numbers about the tips of tree branches in early spring looking for females.
Remarks
Identification to species level usually requires an expert.
Andrena are more active than Apis at lower temperatures. For this and other reasons Andrena (and Osmia) can be more efficient superior pollinators in cold weather. Some species (e.g. Andrena clarkella) are exceptionally cold tolerant. (Gebhardt & Röhr 1987) (Based on J.S. Ascher's comment of 12.iv.2009)
There are indications that the introduced A. wilkella is becoming the most abundant species in the genus.
Nomada parasitizes nests. They find these nests via the chemical cues released from the Andrena species. The Nomada lays her egg in an adjacent cell and when the larva hatches, it kills the host egg and consumes the food supply. The females of both bees smell the same. This also elminated aggression when they encounter each other.(3)
Print References
Bouseman J.K., LaBerge W.E. (1979) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part IX: subgenus Melandrena. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 104: 275-389.
Gusenleitner F., Schwarz M. (2002) Weltweite Checkliste der Bienengattung Andrena mit Bemerkungen und Ergaenzungen zu palaearktischen Arten (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Andrena). Entomofauna Suppl. 12: 1-1280.
Gebhardt M., Röhr G. (1987) Zur Bionomie der Sandbienen Andrena clarkella (Kirby), A. cineraria (L.), A. fuscipes (Kirby) und ihrer Kuckucksbienen. Drosera 87: 89-114.
LaBerge W.E. (1964) Prodromus of American bees of the genus Andrena. Bull. U. Nebr. State Mus. 4: 279-316.
LaBerge W.E. (1967) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part I: Callandrena. Bull. U. Nebr. State Mus. 7: 1-31.
LaBerge W.E. (1969) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part II: Plastandrena, Aporandrena, Charitandrena. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 95: 1-47.
LaBerge W.E. (1971a) A new subgenus of bees found in California and Oregon. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 47: 47-57.
LaBerge W.E. (1971b) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part IV: Scrateropsis, Xiphandrena, and Rhaphandrena. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 97: 441-520.
LaBerge W.E. (1973) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part VI: Subgenus Trachandrena. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 99: 235-371.
LaBerge W.E. (1977) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part VIII: Subgenera Thysandrena, Dasyandrena, Psammandrena, Rhacandrena, Euandrena, Oxyandrena. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 106: 395-525.
LaBerge W.E. (1978) Andrena (Callandrena) micheneriana, a remarkable new bee from Arizona and Mexico (Apoidea: Andrenidae). J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 51.
LaBerge W.E. (1980) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part X. Subgenus Andrena. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 106: 395-525.
LaBerge W.E. (1986a) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part XI. Minor subgenera and subgeneric key. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 111: 441-567.
LaBerge W.E. (1986b) The zoogeography of Andrena Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae) of the western hemisphere. Pp. 110-115. In: The Prairie: Past, present and future (Proc. 9th N.Am. Prairie Conf.). Clamby G.K., Pemble R.H., eds. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies, NDSU, vii+264 pp.
LaBerge W.E. (1987) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part XII: Subgenera Leucandrena, Ptilandrena, Scoliandrena, and Melandrena. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 112: 191-248.
LaBerge W.E. (1989) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part XIII: Subgenera Simandrena and Taeniandrena. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 115: 1-56.
LaBerge W.E., Bouseman J.K. (1970) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part III: Tylandrena. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 96: 543-605.
LaBerge W.E., Bouseman J.K. (1977) On the systematic position of three black Andrena from western North America (Hymenopter: Andrenidae). J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 50: 601-612.
LaBerge W.E., Hurd P.D. Jr. (1965) A new subgenus and species of matinal Andrena from the flowers of Sicyos (Cucurbitaceae) in Mexico. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 41: 186-193.
LaBerge W.E., Ribble D.W. (1972) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part V: Gonandrena, Geissandrena, Parandrena, Pelicandrena. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 98: 271-358.
LaBerge W.E., Ribble D.W. (1975) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere, Part VII: Subgenus Euandrena. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 101: 371-446.
Lanham U.M. (1980) Some comparative observations on the Andrena faunas of Tunisia and Colorado. J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 53: 470-472.
Lanham U.M. (1981) Some Colorado Andrena of presumed hybrid origin with special reference to the tarsal claws. J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 54: 537-546.
Lanham U.M. (1982) A new species of Andrena (Microandrena) from Colorado, with other notes on the group (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Pan-Pac. Entomol. 58: 309-311.
Lanham U.M. (1984) The hybrid swarm of Andrena in western North America: a possible source for the evolutionary origin of a new species. J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 57: 197-208.
Lanham U.M. (1987) A new species of Andrena at the Micrandrena-Scaphandrena boundary (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Pan-Pac. Entomol. 63: 325-327.
Lanham U.M. (1993) The puzzling case of Andrena perplexa (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 66: 131-132.
Lanham U.M., Weissmann M.J. (1988) Scaphandrena and Elandrena. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 64: 183-184.
Lanham U.N. (1949) A subgeneric classification of the New World bees of the genus Andrena. U. Cal. Publ. Entomol. 8: 183-238.
Ribble D.W. (1967) The monotypic North American subgenus Larandrena of Andrena (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Bull. U. Nebr. State Mus. 6: 27-42.
Ribble D.W. (1968a) A new subgenus, Belandrena, of the genus Andrena. J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 41: 220-236.
Ribble D.W. (1968b) Revisions of two subgenera of Andrena, Micrandrena Ashmead and Derandrena, new subgenus. Bull. U. Nebr. State Mus. 8: 237-394.
Ribble D.W. (1973) Hybridization between three species of andrenid bees. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 66: 1281-1286.
Ribble D.W. (1974) A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Subgenus Scaphandrena. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 100: 101-189.
Thorp R.W. (1969) Systematics and ecology of bees of the Subgenus Diandrena (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). U. Cal. Publ. Entomol. 52: iii+146 pp.