Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Eupelmus messene Walker, 1839
Formerly treated as a synonym of Eupelmus vesicularis (Retzius, 1783), which does not occur in North America (Fusu 2017).
Females are brachypterous. The reduced fore wings are bent upright at a right angle at the level of the base of the abdomen.
One of the most ubiquitous eupelmids in North America. It is thought to have been introduced into N. Am. from Europe with the earliest settlers. It has over 140* hosts recorded and only females are known in N. Am., where the species apparently is parthenogenetic.
* This was the number for Eupelmus vesicularis before the species was split by Fusu (2017); see that paper for confirmed hosts of E. messene.
Fusu, Lucian. 2017. An integrative taxonomic study of European Eupelmus (Macroneura)
(Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae), with a molecular and cytogenetic analysis of Eupelmus (Macroneura) vesicularis
: several species hiding under one name for 240 years. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 181(3): 519–603. (Abstract