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Subfamily Sigalphinae

Sigalphinae habitus (adapted from Sharkey in Wharton et al. 1997)
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon ("Parasitica" (parasitoid Apocrita))
Superfamily Ichneumonoidea (Braconid and Ichneumonid Wasps)
Family Braconidae (Braconid Wasps)
Subfamily Sigalphinae
Identification
2nd and 3rd metasomal tergites forming a carapace over all apical tergites
fore wing with 2nd submarginal cell longer than wide
fore wing with M+CU sclerotized, tubular
hind wing with vein 2-1A present
Range
Cosmopolitan. Only Sigalphus bicolor is found in North America, where it has been recorded from eastern U.S. and southeastern Canada.
Food
Sigalphine larvae feed on larvae and pupae of Noctuidae. In North America, S. bicolor larvae feed on larvae and pupae of the noctuid Acronicta clarescens Guenee.
Life Cycle
Sigalphus bicolor is a gregarious larval-pupal koinobiont endoparasitoid. They spin their cocoons inside the dead host cocoon.
Remarks
Although S. bicolor has a metasomal carapace and metasomal carapaces are generally associated with egg parasitoidism in Braconidae, M. Sharkey noted that there is evidence that the larval stage may be attacked (Cushman 1913), although no adults were successfully reared in this case.(Sharkey, M. 1997. Subfamily Sigalphinae. In:(1))

S. bicolor, the only North American sigalphine species, is rarely collected.
Print References
Sharkey, M.J. and D. Janzen. 1995. Review of the world species of Sigalphus (Hymeoptera: Braconidae: Sigalphinae) and biology of Sigalphus romeroi new species. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 4: 99-109.
Works Cited
1.Manual of the New World Genera of the Family Braconidae (Hymenoptera)
Wharton, R.A., P.M. Marsh, M.J. Sharkey (Eds). 1997. International Society of Hymenopterists.