Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Explanation of Names
Likely named for the Okanagan
region/river (or Native American people) of British Columbia.
57 Recognized species north of Mexico and one in Baja (aurantiaca).
~20-35mm, a few are a bit smaller. Wing span: ~50-80mm
Superficially similar to Clidophleps, Neoplatypedia, and Platypedia.
Separated from Platypedia and Neoplatypedia by the position of the costal node at 1/2 the length of the wing, and from Clidophleps by the trapezoidal shape of the radial cell. Can't really be confused with Okanagodes except for O. pallidula, which is not sympatric.
The identification of Okanagana is difficult. In terms of images, the ideal combination for a male is a dorsal and ventral shot, an exposed wing, and dorsal and lateral views of the exposed uncus (hidden normally by the valve). For females: dorsal and ventral shots with a closeup of the female genital plates. Many females aren't identifiable as original descriptions do not include information on the female genitalia.
Songs play a key role in the identification: Individual Okanagana sing at a constant syllable rate at a dominant frequency, and while there are exception, there is generally little intraspecific variation. The two-variable combination of song morphometrics do not overlap within a community, so having a recording and a geographic location (hence community structure) can often allow and otherwise unidentifiable species to be identified. For the purposes of Bugguide, outside links to songs can thus be very useful for ID purposes. Details of songs are slowly being added as they are published. Currently, Chatfield-Taylor and Cole 2019 published the song metrics for 23 taxa and they're being incorporated into the guide.
Okanagana are most speciose in California, but range into the midwest, across Canada, and Okanagana viridis is an allopatric species in the deciduous southeast of OK and TX. One species is found in Baja: O. aurantiaca, but hasn't been recorded in recent history.
Highly varied. Some are host plant specific: O. nigriviridis [chamise]; O. opacipennis, O. rubrovenosa, O. arctostaphylae [manzanita]. Others are highly habitat specific: O. villosa [subalpine], O. balli [tallgrass prairie], O. viridis [deciduous forest].
Generally May-August. Can be found as early as April and as late as September in some years.
Protoperiodical, with an average lifecycle of 2-5 years and emerging in variable numbers.
O. magnifica, cruentifera, mariposa, and venusta follow a variation on a protoperiodical lifecycle. Their emergence schedule is governed by a cumulative rainfall threshold, emerging only when it has been reached. Other Okanagana follow a typical protoperiodical cycle (2-5 years with variably-sized emergences) that are independent of rainfall.
Chatfield-Taylor, W. and Cole, J.A. 2019. Noisy neighbors among the selfish herd: mate recognition within cicada emergences mediated by a critical song distance (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae: Okanagana). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 128(4):854-864.
Chatfield-Taylor, W. and Cole, J.A. 2017. Living rain gauges: cumulative precipitation explains the emergence schedules of California protoperiodical cicadas. Ecology 98: 2521-2527.
Kondratieff BC, Ellingson AR & Leatherman DA. 2002. Insects of Western North America 2. The Cicadas of Colorado (Homoptera: Cicadidae, Tibicinidae). Fort Collins: Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University.
Sanborn AF, Phillips PK. 2013. Biogeography of the cicadas(Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, North of Mexico. Diversity 5: 166–239.
Simons JN. 1954. The Cicadas of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 2: 153–192. (PDF
http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/walker/buzz/c700home.htm (Lots of Davis's original papers describing Okanagana)