23 species listed as occuring north of Mexico at All-Leps
21 species listed by Pelham
The genus Chlosyne has been divided by various authors into species groups and/or subgenera, and few authors have come up with exactly the same arrangement. Some authors treat most of these as distinct genera. The more major groupings occuring north of Mexico are the following:
subgenus Charydryas - Includes all species that use Asteraceae as a larval host. Sometimes it is further divided into species groups. Charydryas is characterized by usually having a "typical" Checkerspot pattern both above and below, except in the species related to C. lacinia, which are usually predominantly dark above. These have orange at the hind wing anal angle (tornus) below that is usually connected to a postmedian orange (or pale) postmedian band or row of spots. If present on hind wing above, the pale (white, yellowish, orange, or reddish) patch or band crosses the middle. Those listed below from C. palla through C. damoetas are all very closely related, and species boundaries are not always clear. A case could be argued (and has been) for these representing variants of a single, or at least fewer species. Perhaps two or three additional species of Charydryas are found south of the United States.
californica & lacinia
C. gorgone & nycteis
C. harrisii, hoffmanni, palla, acastus, gabbii, whitneyi, damoetas
subgenus Chlosyne - Larval hosts are primarily Acanthaceae (sometimes other related families; not Asteraceae). Characterized by a postmedian orange band or patch (not reaching inner margin, or reaching it near middle; sometimes absent), no orange at tornus, and usually a large yellowish light patch in middle or toward base of hind wing (may be orange or red above). Several additional species occur south of the United States.
C. janais & rosita
subgenus unnamed [in some ways intermediate to previous and next; most often treated as a species group within subgenus Chlosyne.] - Larval hosts are primarily Acanthaceae (sometimes other related families; not Asteraceae). Characterized by an orange or red submarginal row of spots on hind wing, interrupted in middle (in our species) by a smaller yellowish spot. Additional species occur south of the United States.
C. melitaeoides, endeis, definita
subgenus Thessalia - Larval hosts are primarily Scrophulariaceae (also Verbenaceae, perhaps Acanthaceae, & other related families; not Asteraceae). Similar to previous, but submarginal band of spots continuous and pale or orange. With the dark pattern (at least below) reduced largely to prominent lines following veins. C. fulvia & C. cyneus may represent regional variants of a single species, and not all authors agree on their treatment. One additional species is found south of the U.S.
C. theona, leanira, cyneas, fulvia
Bordelon, C. & E. Knudson. 2007. "Year of the Chlosyne" in Texas. News of the Lepidopterists' Society 49(1): 3-7.
Kons, Hugo L. Jr., 2000 Phylogenetic studies in the Melitaeini (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae; Nymphalinae) and a revision of the genus Chlosyne Butler. Graduate Dissertation, University of Florida.