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Family Phalangodidae

Megacina schusteri Texella bifurcata Undulus formosus Tolus appalachius Sclerobunus? - Bishopella laciniosa
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Chelicerata (Chelicerates)
Class Arachnida (Arachnids)
Order Opiliones (Harvestmen)
Suborder Laniatores (Armoured harvestmen)
Family Phalangodidae
Explanation of Names
Phalangodidae Simon 1879
~120 spp. in 22 genera total(1)
western US taxa - southwestern Oregon, widespread in California, mountains of Arizona, Texas (mostly caves)

eastern US taxa - Ozarks, Ouachitas, uplands of se US, southern Appalachians
Forests under rocks & logs, in caves
Can be found year round in sheltered microhabitats; many Californian taxa "disappear" in dry summer months, retreating into soil matrix
Print References
Goodnight, CJ & ML Goodnight, 1942. New Phalangodidae (Phalangida) from the United States. American Museum Novitates, New York, 1188: 1-18. (online PDF)

Hedin M and S Thomas. 2010. Molecular systematics of eastern North American Phalangodidae (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores), demonstrating convergent morphological evolution in caves. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54, 107-121. (online PDF)

Kury A.B. (2003) Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Rev. Iber. Aracnol., special monographic volume 1. 337 pp.

Ubick, D. & Briggs, T.S. (2008) The harvestman family Phalangodidae. 6. Revision of the Siltalcina complex (Opiliones: Laniatores). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, (4) 59(1), 1–108. (online PDF)

Ubick, D. 2007. Phalangodidae. pp.217-221. in R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado, & G. Giribet. (eds.) Harvestmen, The Biology of Opiliones. Harvard University Press, 597 pp. (online PDF)