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Family Phalangodidae

Megacina schusteri Texella bifurcata Undulus formosus Tolus appalachius Sclerobunus? - Bishopella laciniosa
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Chelicerata (Chelicerates)
Class Arachnida (Arachnids)
Order Opiliones (Harvestmen)
Suborder Laniatores (Armoured harvestmen)
Family Phalangodidae
Explanation of Names
Phalangodidae Simon 1879
Numbers
~120 spp. in 22 genera total(1)
Range
western US taxa - southwestern Oregon, widespread in California, mountains of Arizona, Texas (mostly caves)

eastern US taxa - Ozarks, Ouachitas, uplands of se US, southern Appalachians
Habitat
Forests under rocks & logs, in caves
Season
Can be found year round in sheltered microhabitats; many Californian taxa "disappear" in dry summer months, retreating into soil matrix
Print References
Goodnight, CJ & ML Goodnight, 1942. New Phalangodidae (Phalangida) from the United States. American Museum Novitates, New York, 1188: 1-18. (online PDF)

Hedin M and S Thomas. 2010. Molecular systematics of eastern North American Phalangodidae (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores), demonstrating convergent morphological evolution in caves. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54, 107-121. (online PDF)

Kury A.B. (2003) Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Rev. Iber. Aracnol., special monographic volume 1. 337 pp.

Ubick, D. & Briggs, T.S. (2008) The harvestman family Phalangodidae. 6. Revision of the Siltalcina complex (Opiliones: Laniatores). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, (4) 59(1), 1–108. (online PDF)

Ubick, D. 2007. Phalangodidae. pp.217-221. in R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado, & G. Giribet. (eds.) Harvestmen, The Biology of Opiliones. Harvard University Press, 597 pp. (online PDF)