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Class Protura - Coneheads

Proturan found under bark of small branch. Protura - Acerentomidae Proturan, dorsal - Hesperentomon macswaini Proturan, anterior - Hesperentomon macswaini Protura Protura proturan - Styletoentomon proturan - Styletoentomon
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Protura (Coneheads)
~80 spp. in 21 genera of 4 families in our area (synopsis below), ~750 spp. in >70 genera of 7 families worldwide(1)
Hesperentomon macswaini
Family PROTENTOMIDAE (4 spp. in 3 genera)
Neocondeellum americanum
Protentomon (2 spp.)
Proturentomon iowaense
Family ACERENTOMIDAE (29 spp. in 15 genera)
Subfamily Berberentulinae
Acerentuloides americanus
Acerentulus (2 spp.)
Baculentulus macqueeni
Gracilentulus (3 spp.)
Proacerella reducta
Subfamily Acerentominae
Filientomon barberi
Fjellbergella tuxeni
Orinentomon greenbergi
Tuxenentulus (2 spp.)
Subfamily Nipponentominae
Alaskaentomon (2 spp.)
Nipponentomon (6 spp.)
Nosekiella (3 spp.)
Paracerella americana
Verrucoentomon (3 spp.)
Vesiculentomon (2 spp.)
Family EOSENTOMIDAE (45 spp. in 2 genera)
Eosentomon (43 spp.)
Styletoentomon (2 spp.)
0.6-1.5 mm(2)
Head somewhat conical with suctorial mouth parts, largely withdrawn into the head. No eyes or antennae. First pair of legs is primarily sensory and carried in an elevated position.
At hatching there are nine abdominal segments and one is added at each molt. Twelve abdominal segments in the adult.
worldwide except polar regions and nival zones of mountains(1)
Moist soil/humus, leaf mold, rotting logs
Decomposing organic matter
Life Cycle
three molts only
can be very abundant; densities of >90,000 per sq. meter reported (in a German forest)
Works Cited
1.Catalogue of the world Protura
Szeptycki A. 2007. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 50B: 1-210.
2.Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects
Norman F. Johnson, Charles A. Triplehorn. 2004. Brooks Cole.