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Class Protura - Coneheads

Proturan found under bark of small branch. Protura - Acerentomidae Proturan, dorsal abdomen - Hesperentomon macswaini Proturan, ventral - Hesperentomon macswaini Protura proturan - Styletoentomon Tuxenentulus rockyensis? Tuxenentulus rockyensis?
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Protura (Coneheads)
Explanation of Names
'Proto' meaning first, 'ura' meaning tail.
~80 spp. in 21 genera of 4 families in our area (synopsis below), ~750 spp. in >70 genera of 7 families worldwide(1)
Hesperentomon macswaini
Family PROTENTOMIDAE (4 spp. in 3 genera)
Neocondeellum americanum
Protentomon (2 spp.)
Proturentomon iowaense
Family ACERENTOMIDAE (29 spp. in 15 genera)
Subfamily Berberentulinae
Acerentuloides americanus
Acerentulus (2 spp.)
Baculentulus macqueeni
Gracilentulus (3 spp.)
Proacerella reducta
Subfamily Acerentominae
Filientomon barberi
Fjellbergella tuxeni
Orinentomon greenbergi
Tuxenentulus (2 spp.)
Subfamily Nipponentominae
Alaskaentomon (2 spp.)
Nipponentomon (6 spp.)
Nosekiella (3 spp.)
Paracerella americana
Verrucoentomon (3 spp.)
Vesiculentomon (2 spp.)
Family EOSENTOMIDAE (45 spp. in 2 genera)
Eosentomon (43 spp.)
Styletoentomon (2 spp.)
0.6-1.5 mm(2)
Usually white or cream colored
Head conical
Entognathus, mouth-parts in a pouch.
No Antennae, first pair of legs serve a sensory roll
Immatures have 9-11 abdominal segments, they gain one at each molt. Adults have 12 abdominal segments
Worldwide except polar regions and nival zones of mountains(1)
Moist soil/humus, leaf mold, rotting logs.
Decomposing organic matter
Life Cycle
Three molts only
Can be very abundant; densities of >90,000 per sq. meter reported (in a German forest)
Works Cited
1.Catalogue of the world Protura
Szeptycki A. 2007. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 50B: 1-210.
2.Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects
Norman F. Johnson, Charles A. Triplehorn. 2004. Brooks Cole.