4 spp. in our area (all adventive), ~70 worldwide(1)
Separated from other similar-appearing cockroaches in e. North America by their smaller size, by the presence of conspicuous spines on the ventroposterior margin of the anterior femur, and by the presence of a well-developed intercalated triangle of the hindwing.(1)
Native to the Old World (mostly w. Eurasia), less common at northern latitudes
Abundant in European forests, moorlands, scrubby woodland margins, and rough grasslands, mostly on the ground under dead leaves, among bracken ferns, in grass and moss, on lower branches of small trees and shrubs, and also in coastal habitats (sea cliffs, sand dunes, beaches)(1)
Species found in North America have a two year life cycle, with eggs and late instar nymphs overwintering.
E. pallidus: yellow pronotum surrounded by a translucent rim:
E. sylvestris: Dark red to black pronotum with transparent to cream rim:
E. lapponicus: Dark brown pronotum with translucent rim:
Ootheca with keel rotated 90 degrees:
In E. pallidus and E. sylvestris the ventral margin of the front femora have three longer spines (just visible at the middle of the front femur in the image above) followed by a row of much shorter spines (look like fuzz in this image). In E. lapponicus (image below) there are only two of the larger spines on specimens examined thus far in North America.
(photographic guide to European species, in German)