Explanation of Names
Anthribus nebulosus Forster 1770
native to w. Palaearctic (Europe to Siberia)(2)
, introduced into the US and released in VA (established and spreading), but the ne. US population (MA-NY) is apparently adventive(3)
"The beast was intentionally introduced by Mike Kostarab into Blacksburg and Virginia Beach, VA, to control scales. He sent me some of the original colony from Hungary, collected in the 1970's. The curious aspect of this is that it subsequently showed up in sw.Mass., adjacent Conn., and se.NY. Hoebeke and Wheeler (Cornell Univ.) did a nice paper on the range extension: 1991, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 93(1):45–50. They think it was in the northeast as an adventive BEFORE Mike's introduction in Virginia. There are no records between Blacksburg and New York, and there is no evidence that the Virginia Beach introduction succeeded. If there is any more info, I would really like to see it.
"Incidentally, the other common European species of Anthribus, A. fasciatus Forster, has (apparently) been tried without success. I have seen one specimen from a California USDA lab, but can find nothing about releases or other work.
"Of all the anthribids in the World, Anthribus is the only "predator". I wonder if there is also a fungus attacking or associating with the scale. The literature gives the impression it is the scale eggs that are eaten, and sometimes the female scale (before or after eggs are laid???). So many questions, so few answers." (Barry Valentine, pers.comm., 22.v.2009)