Identification, Images, & Information
For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin
For the United States & Canada
Clickable Guide
Moths Butterflies Flies Caterpillars Flies Dragonflies Flies Mantids Cockroaches Bees and Wasps Walkingsticks Earwigs Ants Termites Hoppers and Kin Hoppers and Kin Beetles True Bugs Fleas Grasshoppers and Kin Ticks Spiders Scorpions Centipedes Millipedes

Upcoming Events

National Moth Week photos of insects and people. Here's how to add your images.

Photos of insects and people from the 2019 BugGuide Gathering in Louisiana, July 25-27

Discussion, insects and people from the 2018 gathering in Virginia, July 27-29

Photos of insects and people from the 2015 gathering in Wisconsin, July 10-12

Photos of insects and people from the 2014 gathering in Virginia, June 4-7.

Photos of insects and people from the 2013 gathering in Arizona, July 25-28

Photos of insects and people from the 2012 gathering in Alabama

Photos of insects and people from the 2011 gathering in Iowa


Species Dolichovespula maculata - Bald-faced Hornet

Baldfaced Hornet - worker - Dolichovespula maculata - female Bald Faced Hornet - Dolichovespula maculata - female Dolichovespula maculata worker - Dolichovespula maculata - female Wasp, Hornet, Hover Fly? - Dolichovespula maculata hornet - Dolichovespula maculata Entomology Project: Non-Flower 6  - Dolichovespula maculata Dolichovespula maculata - female Bald-faced Hornet - Dolichovespula maculata
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon (Aculeata - Ants, Bees and Stinging Wasps)
Superfamily Vespoidea (Yellowjackets and Hornets, Paper Wasps; Potter, Mason and Pollen Wasps and allies)
Family Vespidae (Yellowjackets and Hornets, Paper Wasps; Potter, Mason and Pollen Wasps)
Subfamily Vespinae (Hornets and Yellowjackets)
Genus Dolichovespula (Aerial Yellowjackets)
Species maculata (Bald-faced Hornet)
Other Common Names
White-faced Hornet
Bald-faced aerial yellowjacket
Bald-faced yellowjacket
White-faced yellowjacket
Explanation of Names
Dolichovespula maculata (Linnaeus 1763)
workers 12-14 mm, queens 18-20 mm(1)
Black with white markings on the head, thorax, and the last few segments of the abdomen (male with white on the first abdominal segment)(1). Wings smoky.
A large black and white yellowjacket with brown eyes (A). The 1st 3 terga are usually entirely black (J, N). Recognizable as a Dolichovespula by the large gap between the mandible and eye (oculo-malar space) (B)
Variation: Queens (C) and workers (D) may have lateral pale spots on the 3rd abdominal segment, and, rarely, isolated white spots on the 3rd tergite (Fig. E). Males may have a pale band on the posterior end of the 1st tergite and pale stripes on the posterior end of the 3rd (F)
The pale lateral stripe on the pronotum of the thorax can vary from relatively narrow (G) to broad (H, H1).
Sexual dimorphism: Males have long antennae with 13 segments; females (queens and workers), 12. Males have a 7-segmented abdomen with white patches on segments 4-7. Female abdomen is 6-segmented with white dorsal patches on 4-6 (I). Queens are larger than workers and males (J).

Queens: A, C, E, H, H1

Workers: D, G, and

Males: B, F, and
Throughout North America(2), except the dry Midwest.
Nests above ground in trees, bushes, and other protected places. Nests are large, oval nests (when mature), with entrance low down on the side (K). However, the beginning nest by the queen is globular with the entrance at the bottom (L).
Fertilized queens overwinter, workers present from spring through late fall, new queens and males produced late summer/fall. It is possible that colonies are active all year in the deep south.
Adults are common on flowers (1)(D-G, I) and take nectar; adults feed pre-chewed insects to larvae(2). Also are carnivorous and eat fruit:
Life Cycle (1)
A fertilized queen overwinters and starts a paper enclosed nest in the Spring. As the colony grows, multiple tiers are added, consisting of hexagonal cells. Males appear in the fall.
Similar species: D. albida, D. arctica, and Vespula consobrina are basically black and white and can be confused with D. maculata; in the latter, tergite 2 is all black (N), while in the other 3 spp. there is a pale apical band.
See Also
Spilomyia fusca (Diptera: Syrphidae) is a mimic:
Internet References
Species profile (Painter et al.)
Fact sheet (Jacobs 2015)
Works Cited
1.American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico
Ross H. Arnett. 2000. CRC Press.
2.National Audubon Society Field Guide to Insects and Spiders
Lorus and Margery Milne. 1980. Knopf.
3.Identification Atlas of the Vespidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) of the Northeastern Nearctic Region
Matthias Buck, Stephen A. Marshall, and David K. B. Cheung. 2008. Biological Survey of Canada [Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification].