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TaxonomyBrowse
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Species Dolichovespula maculata - Bald-faced Aerial Yellowjacket

Bald-faced Hornet - Dolichovespula maculata - female Bald-faced Hornet - Dolichovespula maculata Baldfaced Hornet - Dolichovespula maculata Bald Face Hornet? - Dolichovespula maculata Bald-faced hornet - Dolichovespula maculata Bald faced horney - Dolichovespula maculata - female hornet - Dolichovespula maculata Some species of paper wasp?   - Dolichovespula maculata
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps and Sawflies)
No Taxon (Aculeata - Ants, Bees and Stinging Wasps)
Superfamily Vespoidea (Yellowjackets and Hornets, Paper Wasps; Potter, Mason and Pollen Wasps and allies)
Family Vespidae (Yellowjackets and Hornets, Paper Wasps; Potter, Mason and Pollen Wasps)
Subfamily Vespinae (Hornets and Yellowjackets)
Genus Dolichovespula (Aerial Yellowjackets)
Species maculata (Bald-faced Aerial Yellowjacket)
Other Common Names
This species has several common names across its range. Older references loosely used the term "hornet" to refer to members of this genus, despite not being members of the genus Vespa (the term is entomologically restricted to the genus). Newer references have abandoned this practice and instead refer to members of this genus more properly as yellowjackets, using the term "aerial yellowjacket" to distinguish them from members of the genus Vespula. As a result of this history, numerous combinations of the two parts of the common name, the group name (i.e. "aerial yellowjacket") and a modifier (i.e. "bald-faced"), exist.

Bald-faced aerial yellowjacket
Bald-faced aerial blackjacket
Bald-faced blackjacket
Bald-faced yellowjacket
Bald-faced hornet
Bald-faced wasp

Aerial blackjacket
Blackjacket (shared with other ivory-marked vespine species, particularly Vespula consobrina)

White-faced aerial yellowjacket
White-faced yellowjacket
White-faced blackjacket
White-faced hornet

White-tailed aerial yellowjacket
White-tailed yellowjacket
White-tailed blackjacket
White-tailed hornet
Explanation of Names
Dolichovespula maculata (Linnaeus 1763)
Size
workers 12-14 mm, queens 18-20 mm(1)
Identification
Black with white markings on the head, thorax, and the last few segments of the abdomen (male with white on the first abdominal segment)(1). Wings smoky.
A large black and white yellowjacket with brown eyes (A). The 1st 3 terga are usually entirely black (J, N). Recognizable as a Dolichovespula by the large gap between the mandible and eye (oculo-malar space) (B)
AB
Variation: Queens (C) and workers (D) may have lateral pale spots on the 3rd abdominal segment, and, rarely, isolated white spots on the 3rd tergite (Fig. E). Males may have a pale band on the posterior end of the 1st tergite and pale stripes on the posterior end of the 3rd (F)
CDEF.
The pale lateral stripe on the pronotum of the thorax can vary from relatively narrow (G) to broad (H, H1).
GHH1
Sexual dimorphism: Males have long antennae with 13 segments; females (queens and workers), 12. Males have a 7-segmented abdomen with white patches on segments 4-7. Female abdomen is 6-segmented with white dorsal patches on 4-6 (I). Queens are larger than workers and males (J).
IJ

Queens: A, C, E, H, H1

Workers: D, G, and

Males: B, F, and
Range
Throughout North America(2), except the dry Midwest.
Habitat
Nests above ground in trees, bushes, and other protected places. Nests are large, oval nests (when mature), with entrance low down on the side (K). However, the beginning nest by the queen is globular with the entrance at the bottom (L).
K L
Season
Fertilized queens overwinter, workers present from spring through late fall, new queens and males produced late summer/fall. It is possible that colonies are active all year in the deep south.
Food
Adults are common on flowers (1)(D-G, I) and take nectar; adults feed pre-chewed insects to larvae(2). Also are carnivorous and eat fruit:
Life Cycle (1)
A fertilized queen overwinters and starts a paper enclosed nest in the Spring. As the colony grows, multiple tiers are added, consisting of hexagonal cells. Males appear in the fall.
Remarks
Similar species: D. albida, D. arctica, and Vespula consobrina are basically black and white and can be confused with D. maculata; in the latter, tergite 2 is all black (N), while in the other 3 spp. there is a pale apical band.
MN
See Also
Spilomyia fusca (Diptera: Syrphidae) is a mimic:
Internet References
Species profile (Painter et al.)
Fact sheet (Jacobs 2015)
Works Cited
1.American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico
Ross H. Arnett. 2000. CRC Press.
2.National Audubon Society Field Guide to Insects and Spiders
Lorus and Margery Milne. 1980. Knopf.
3.Identification Atlas of the Vespidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) of the Northeastern Nearctic Region
Matthias Buck, Stephen A. Marshall, and David K. B. Cheung. 2008. Biological Survey of Canada [Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification].