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Species Tetraopes tetrophthalmus - Red Milkweed Beetle

Red Milkweed Beetle - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus Tetraopes tetrophthalmus Coleoptera - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus Insect 1861 &1862 & 1867 - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus Tetraopes tetrophthalmus beetle - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus Tetraopes tetrophthalmus Tetraopes tetrophthalmus - Red Milkweed Beetle - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga (Water, Rove, Scarab, Long-horned, Leaf and Snout Beetles)
No Taxon (Series Cucujiformia)
Superfamily Chrysomeloidea (Long-horned and Leaf Beetles)
Family Cerambycidae (Long-horned Beetles)
Subfamily Lamiinae (Flat-faced Longhorns)
Tribe Tetraopini
Genus Tetraopes (Milkweed Longhorns)
Species tetrophthalmus (Red Milkweed Beetle)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
tetraophthalmus (spelling)
Explanation of Names
Tetraopes tetrophthalmus (Forster 1771)
tetrophthalmus 'four-eyed' (each compound eye is completely divided)
Size
8-15 mm(1)
Identification
combination of broad, disk-shaped hump (callus) on pronotum, strong elytral spots, especially the elongated subhumeral spot, and unringed antennae are distinctive for this species(1)
Range
e. NA (QC-MB-ND to GA-TX-CO)(2)(3)
Habitat
very common where primary host plant (A. syriaca) is present, very rare in TX(4) where A. syriaca is nonexistent
Food
Hosts: milkweed (Asclepias spp.), esp. (or exclusively) A. syriaca; an isolated population in a disturbed site in Illinois was reported on A. verticillata, where the adults may suffer reduced fitness(5)
But, according to others, also A. purpurascens and A. viridiflora(6)), and on dogbane (Apocynum)(1)
Life Cycle
Eggs laid on stems near ground or just below surface; larvae bore into stems, overwinter in roots, and pupate in spring; adults emerge in early summer(7)
Print References
Rasmann S., Agrawal A.A. (2011) Evolution of specialization: a phylogenetic study of host range in the red milkweed beetle (Tetraopes tetrophthalmus). Am Nat. 177: 728-737 (Full text)
Works Cited
1.Field Guide to Northeastern Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
Douglas Yanega. 1996. Illinois Natural History Survey.
2.Beetles of Eastern North America
Arthur V. Evans. 2014. Princeton University Press.
3.Checklist of beetles (Coleoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Second edition
Bousquet Y., Bouchard P., Davies A.E., Sikes D.S. 2013. ZooKeys 360: 1–402.
4.Texas A&M University Insect Collection (TAMUIC)
5.The timing of insect/plant diversification: might Tetraopes (Col.: Cerambycidae) and Asclepias (Asclepiadaceae) have co-evolved?
Farrell B.D., Mitter C. 1998. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 63: 553–577.
6.Insect herbivores of 12 milkweed (Asclepias) species.
Betz, R.F., W.R. Rommel & J.J. Dichtl. 2000. Pp. 7-19. In: C. Warwick (ed.). Proceedings of the 15th North American Prairie Conference, Natural Areas Association, Bend, OR.
7.National Audubon Society Field Guide to Insects and Spiders
Lorus and Margery Milne. 1980. Knopf.