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Species Tetraopes tetrophthalmus - Red Milkweed Beetle

Red Milkweed Beetle - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus Tetraopes - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus Black-spotted red beetle - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus Red-Milkweed Beetle - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus Cerambycidae - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus mating red milkweed beetles - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus - male - female Milkweed bug nymph? - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus Cerambycidae, distinctive herbivory on Common Milkweed - Tetraopes tetrophthalmus
Classification
Kingdom Animalia (Animals)
Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)
Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)
Class Insecta (Insects)
Order Coleoptera (Beetles)
Suborder Polyphaga
No Taxon (Series Cucujiformia)
Superfamily Chrysomeloidea (Longhorn and Leaf Beetles)
Family Cerambycidae (Longhorn Beetles)
Subfamily Lamiinae (Flat-faced Longhorn Beetles)
Tribe Tetraopini
Genus Tetraopes (Milkweed Longhorn Beetles)
Species tetrophthalmus (Red Milkweed Beetle)
Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
tetraophthalmus (spelling)
Explanation of Names
Tetraopes tetrophthalmus (Forster 1771)
tetrophthalmus 'four-eyed' (each compound eye is completely divided)
Size
8-15 mm(1)
Identification
combination of broad, disk-shaped hump (callus) on pronotum, strong elytral spots, especially the elongated subhumeral spot, and unringed antennae are distinctive for this species(1)
Range
e. NA (QC-MB-ND to GA-TX-CO)(2)(3)
Habitat
very common where primary host plant (A. syriaca) is present, very rare in TX(4) where A. syriaca is nonexistent
Food
Hosts: milkweed (Asclepias spp.), esp. (or exclusively) A. syriaca; an isolated population in a disturbed site in Illinois was reported on A. verticillata, where the adults may suffer reduced fitness(5)
But, according to others, also A. purpurascens and A. viridiflora(6)), and on dogbane (Apocynum)(1)
Life Cycle
Eggs laid on stems near ground or just below surface; larvae bore into stems, overwinter in roots, and pupate in spring; adults emerge in early summer(7)
Print References
Rasmann S., Agrawal A.A. (2011) Evolution of specialization: a phylogenetic study of host range in the red milkweed beetle (Tetraopes tetrophthalmus). Am Nat. 177: 728-737 (Full text)
Works Cited
1.Field Guide to Northeastern Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
Douglas Yanega. 1996. Illinois Natural History Survey.
2.Beetles of Eastern North America
Arthur V. Evans. 2014. Princeton University Press.
3.Checklist of beetles (Coleoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Second edition
Bousquet Y., Bouchard P., Davies A.E., Sikes D.S. 2013. ZooKeys 360: 1–402.
4.Texas A&M University Insect Collection (TAMUIC)
5.The timing of insect/plant diversification: might Tetraopes (Col.: Cerambycidae) and Asclepias (Asclepiadaceae) have co-evolved?
Farrell B.D., Mitter C. 1998. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 63: 553–577.
6.Insect herbivores of 12 milkweed (Asclepias) species.
Betz, R.F., W.R. Rommel & J.J. Dichtl. 2000. Pp. 7-19. In: C. Warwick (ed.). Proceedings of the 15th North American Prairie Conference, Natural Areas Association, Bend, OR.
7.National Audubon Society Field Guide to Insects and Spiders
Lorus and Margery Milne. 1980. Knopf.