Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Lycus Hübner, 1819 [non Lycus Fabricius, 1787]. Type species: Papilio rubi Linnaeus. Preoccupied invalid name
Callophrys Billberg, 1820. Type species: Papilio rubi Linnaeus. Replaces Lycus Hübner
Licus Hübner, 1821. Type species: Papilio rubi Linnaeus. Likely a mispelling of "Lycus"
Mitoura Scudder, 1872. Type species: Thecla smilacis Boisduval & Le Conte. Spelled in original description as "Mitouri"; corrected to "Mitoura" in errata listing at end of same publication
Incisalia Scudder, 1872. Type species: Lycus niphon Hübner
Satsuma Murray, 1874 [non Satsuma Adams, 1868 (Mollusca)]. Type species: Lycaena ferrea Butler. Preoccupied invalid name
Ahlbergia Bryk, 1946. Type species: Lycaena ferrea Butler. Replaces Satsuma Murray
Ginzia Okano, 1947. Type species: Lycaena ferrea Butler. Genus = Ahlbergia
Callophrys subgenus Sandia Clench & P. Ehrlich, 1960. Type species: Callophrys (Sandia) mcfarlandi Clench & P. Ehrlich
Callophrys subgenus Mitoura (Scudder) Clench, 1961
Callophrys subgenus Xamia Clench, 1961. Type species: Thecla xami (Reakirt)
Sandia (Clench & P. Ehrlich)
Deciduphagus K. Johnson, 1992. Type species: Thecla augustinus Westwood. Part of Incisalia
Cisincisalia K. Johnson, 1992. Type species: Cisincisalia moecki K. Johnson (= Callophrys guatemalena Clench)
Cissatsuma K. Johnson, 1992. Type species: Satsuma albilinea Riley. Genus = Ahlbergia [in part].
Loranthomitoura Baller & Pratt, 1992. Type species: Thecla spinetorum Hewitson. Genus = Cisincisalia K. Johnson
Novosatsuma K. Johnson, 1992. Type species: Novosatsuma monstrabilia K. Johnson. Genus = Ahlbergia [in part].
Explanation of Names
Circumscription of this genus is debated, and some treat segregate groups as subgenera, while others treat them as distinct genera. Even the limits of each group are debated. Currently these segregates are typically treated as subgenera within the broader genus Callophrys.
subgenus Callophrys - Green Hairstreaks. Tailless and green below. North America and Eurasia; includes N. American C. affinis, perplexa, & sheridanii.
subgenus Incisalia - Elfins (incl. Deciduphagus,). Mostly tailless or with scalloped margins, gray to brown below. North America and Eurasia. Authors in Eurasia usually separate Ahlbergia as distinct, though differences are trivial (visually - most Eurasian species have blue above, American species do not). Includes N. American C. fotis, augustinus, henrici, irus, mossii, polios, eryphon, lanoraieensis, & niphon.
subgenus Mitoura - Juniper/Cedar and Mistletoe Hairstreaks (incl. Cisincisalia). Tailed, green or brown below, with irregular stripes; some are bluish above. Some authors split the subgenus based on larval host plant preferences. North America; species north of Mexico are C. gryneus, hesseli, johnsoni, & spinetorum. Conifer-feeding is unusual among Lycaenidae, and perhaps this initially occured as a switch from Mistletoes that grew on the Conifers.
subgenus Xamia - Very similar to Mitoura, differing in detail of male genitalia; tailed, greenish below. Mostly in Mexico, barely into Texas & Arizona; one species north of Mexico, C. xami.
subgenus Sandia - Rounded wings, untailed, green below with curved fairly even black and white postmedian stripe. Sw. North America; one species, C. mcfarlandi.
genus Cyanophrys - Tropical Green Hairstreaks
. Tailed, bluish above, usually green below with partial white stripes below. Tropical American. Generally treated as a distinct genus, as it is presently on BugGuide (following 'A Cataloge of Butterflies of the United States and Canada', Jonathan Pehlam). Originally described as a subgenus of Callophrys
and still so-treated by some authors.
North America and Eurasia. Several Neotropical genera from Mexico and southward are very closely related.
Butterflies of North America thumbnail pages including this genus: ~first~
Insects of Cedar Creek
page on Lycaenidae refers to Incisalia
splits genus Callophrys as well.