Synonyms and other taxonomic changes
Zale lunifera (Hübner, 1818)
Phaeocyma lunifera Hübner, 1818
Homoptera cingulifera Walker, 
* phylogenetic sequence #931048
Wingspan 3.7-4.5cm (Covell, 1984).(1)
Adult: Markings and coloration similar to Z. intenta, except smaller and AM line has a more pronounced medial angle. The fine black striae are less developed and thinner. Small, black orbicular spot is distinct, sharply contrasting. ST area concolourous with medial area, never contrastingly paler with strong striae.
Maine to Florida, west to at least Mississippi (Wagner, 2011).
Flies April-May and July-August (Covell, 1984).(1)
Larvae feed on scrub oak species and blackjack (Wagner, 2011).(2)
Z. intenta applies to the widespread species, whereas true Z. lunifera is the species with a more restricted occurrence east and south of the Appalachians (Schmidt, 2010) - photos on BugGuide may need to be reviewed and re-determined.
(Walker) - see Schmidt's reassessment below.
Covell Jr., C. V. 1984. A field guide to the moths of eastern North America. p.167
Crumb, S. E. 1956. The larvae of the Phalaenidae. USDA Technical Bulletin 1135: 290
Schmidt, B. Christian 2010. Taxonomic reassessment of Zale lunifera
(Hübner) (Erebidae, Erebinae). ZooKeys 39: 99–106 (PDF
Smith, John B. 1908. A revision of some species on Noctuidae heretofore referred to the genus Homoptera
Boisduval. p.241 (PDF
Wagner, D. L., D. F. Schweitzer, J. B. Sullivan & R. C. Reardon 2011. Owlet caterpillars of eastern North America. p.174
Moth Photographers Group
– images of live & pinned adults
- images of pinned DNA supported specimens